Illustration of a muscular man doing biceps curls with resistance bands.

Are Resistance Bands as Good for Building Muscle?

Resistance bands are cheap, portable, and convenient. They challenge our muscles. What more do we need? There’s a whole grain of truth there. Resistance bands can stimulate muscle growth. Plenty of people get great results from training with them. You don’t need anything more.

But what if you’re trying to build muscle as quickly, efficiently, or painlessly as possible? Are resistance bands the best tool for that? That’s a different question. In that case, we need to compare resistance bands against the alternatives: bodyweight exercises, dumbbells, barbells, and exercise machines.

So, how do resistance bands compare to callisthenics and free weights? Let’s delve into it.

Illustration of a muscular man doing biceps curls with resistance bands.


Most beginners aren’t too thrilled about the idea of joining a gym. They’d much rather build muscle at home. Resistance bands are one of the most popular ways to do that. But why? Of all the ways to train at home, why resistance bands? Are they especially good for building muscle?

Some claim resistance bands are better for building muscle than free weights because of “variable resistance.” Elastic bands get progressively harder as your stretch them, creating a unique resistance curve. It’s what sets resistance bands apart from the cable machines you’d find at a gym. That raises a question. If variable resistance is good for building muscle, why do commercial gyms invest in equipment that provides the opposite resistance curve?

And why are free weights so popular? They’re bulkier and more expensive than resistance bands. If they’re worse for building muscle, why bother with them at all?

We Can Build Muscle With Anything

Before we dive into whether resistance bands are ideal for building muscle, it’s worth pointing out that we can build muscle in imperfect situations. You don’t need to build muscle in the ideal way. There are only three things required to build muscle:

If we can do those three things, we can build muscle. In fact, I’m confident that you could build muscle if you were stranded on a desert island with nothing but your body weight and a weight-gainer supplement. But, I mean, I’m also confident that you could clean your house with a toothbrush and some vinegar. There’s a difference between something being possible and something being easy.

Not everything needs to be optimal. I know people who have decently muscular physiques from swimming laps in a pool. Some people gain an abundance of muscle as a byproduct of becoming overweight. Other people have already built muscle and are just trying to maintain their size, strength, and health in an enjoyable way.

Illustration of a muscular guy flexing his biceps.

But I’m coming at this from the perspective of the skinny guy who was desperate to bulk up. When deciding what equipment to buy, I didn’t want to see a photo of a muscular fitness model holding resistance bands saying, “Anything is possible with hard work, sweat, and a credit card!” No, I wanted to know what the pros and cons were. I wanted to know how resistance bands compared to barbells, dumbbells, and kettlebells.

Are Resistance Bands Good for Building Muscle?

Whether we’re using resistance bands or free weights, the same general principles of muscle growth still apply. We need adequate rest between sets so that we’re limited by the strength of our muscles rather than by our cardiovascular fitness. If our workout is a long circuit designed to leave us winded, that’s not hypertrophy training, that’s cardio. That disqualifies a lot of bodyweight, resistance-band, and even free-weight workout routines, but it doesn’t mean that the tools are inappropriate, just the training style.

Whether we’re using free weights or resistance bands, we still want to focus on the big compound lifts, add in some isolation lifts, lift with a large range of motion, bring our sets close to muscular failure, and do enough of those challenging sets each week. So let’s review these principles and how they apply to resistance bands.

The Problem of Variable Resistance

As a general rule of thumb, lifting with a large range of motion is good for building muscle. It forces our muscles to do more work, we stimulate a wider variety of muscle fibres, and we often engage more overall muscle mass. But there’s some nuance to it, too. There are two specific parts of the range of motion that are disproportionately important:

  • The sticking point: our muscles only grow when we challenge them, and some parts of the range of motion are more challenging than others. The most challenging part of the range of motion is called the sticking point. That’s where we tend to fail, and it’s also where we tend to stimulate the most muscle growth. For example, the sticking point of a squat is when our thighs are horizontal with the ground. If we squat to that point, we get most of the benefit of squatting, and so it’s considered a “complete” squat. If we squat higher than that, it’s considered a “partial squat,” and we miss out on some of the muscle growth.
  • The stretch at the bottom: the most important benefit of increasing our range of motion beyond the sticking point is that it allows us to get a loaded stretch on our muscles at the bottom of the lift. For example, if we squat even deeper, we’ll get an even better stretch on our quads, and we’ll stimulate even more muscle growth. This is probably why deep front squats and goblet squats stimulate just as much muscle growth as back squats, even though back squats are much heavier. This is also why seated hamstring curls, which put our hamstrings under a deeper stretch, build muscle faster than lying hamstring curls (study).

But how much does it matter? Are we talking about a 5% difference in muscle growth? 30%? 50%? This is where things get interesting. If we look at a meta-analysis of all the relevant studies, we see that challenging our muscles in a stretched position stimulates 260% as much muscle growth as challenging our muscles in a contracted position—nearly three times as much muscle growth:

Graph showing the difference in muscle growth when training with long and short muscles lengths.

These findings have been confirmed by three newer muscle-building studies, too (Pedrosa, Maeo, Yanagisawa). All of them show that challenging our muscles at longer muscle lengths leads to greater muscle activation and 2–3x more muscle growth. That’s is a lot of extra muscle growth. This is something we really want to pay attention to when choosing our main bulking exercises. And this is why the deep squat, bench press, deadlift, and even push-up stimulate so much muscle growth. They all challenge our muscles in a stretched position.

The next question is, why does challenging our muscles in a stretched position stimulate more muscle growth? The main way that we produce force with our muscles is by contracting them, which is called active tension. But our muscles are sort of like elastics. When we stretch them, they pull themselves back toward their resting length. This is called passive tension.

When we contract our muscles as hard as possible while stretching them, we combine both active and passive tension. This puts more overall mechanical tension on our muscles. Mechanical tension is the main driver of hypertrophy. Having more mechanical tension on our muscles stimulates more muscle growth.

So, you might be thinking, what does this have to do with resistance bands? After all, nothing is stopping us from using a full range of motion with resistance bands, right? And if we use resistance bands properly, we can make sure that there’s some tension on our muscles at the bottom of the range of motion.

The problem is that the resistance bands gradually apply more force the further we stretch them, meaning that the bottom of a lift is much easier than the top. We aren’t giving our muscles enough of a challenge at the bottom of the movement, and so we aren’t getting the full benefit of training at longer muscle lengths.

So to summarize, our muscles grow best when we challenge them at longer muscle lengths. Resistance bands make lifts harder when our muscles are at shorter muscle lengths, preventing us from loading our muscles as heavily in a deep stretch. This should, in theory, make resistance bands worse for stimulating muscle growth.

Free Weight Strength Curves

Variable resistance is the term used to describe the odd resistance curve that resistance bands provide. To understand how that affects muscle growth, we need to compare that resistance curve against the natural strength curves of our muscles to see how well they match up. If resistance bands are tough where we’re strong and loose where we’re weak, that’s a good match. But if they’re tough where we’re weak and loose where we’re strong, that’s a poor match.

Illustration of a man doing a dumbbell biceps curl.

If we look at the dumbbell curl, we see that we can work our biceps through a fairly complete range of motion. We don’t get a full stretch at the bottom, but our biceps are at least brought to their full resting length (or slightly beyond). But as we discussed above, we also need to see if our muscles are being challenged throughout that range of motion.

Illustration of the resistance curve of the biceps curl.

The beginning of the lift is fairly easy, it gets harder in the middle (when our forearms are horizontal), and then the lift gets easier again. In that middle position, the weight is about 40% heavier, so most people will fail there. That’s the sticking point. However, we also need to factor in our internal leverage:

Illustration of the muscle attachment and strength curve of the biceps curl.

Those little blue lines represent the moment arms created by our muscle insertions and joint angles. That shows that our biceps have poor leverage at the start, we get stronger in the middle, and then our leverage gets worse again at the top.

I’m using loose numbers here, but in this example, our leverage is about 30% better at the sticking point. Most (but not all) of the resistance curve is cancelled out by our internal leverage. The dumbbell is light at the beginning and end of the lift, which is good, because that’s where we’re weaker. And the dumbbell is heaviest in the middle, which is great, because that’s where we’re strongest.

What’s cool is that most free weight lifts are like the biceps curl, with their resistance curves at least partially flattened by our natural strength curves. We’re strongest at the toughest part of the squat, the bench press, and the deadlift, too. This allows us to lift fairly heavy weights, and it means our muscles are challenged through most of the range of motion (including at the bottom, which is key).

Our bodies are built to lift free weights. Of course they are. We’ve been lifting things against gravity for millions of years.

Resistance Band Strength Curves

Okay, so what happens when we look at resistance bands? In this case, assuming we hook the bands under our feet, the line of pull is great. That slightly backward angle means that we can actually get a bit more of a stretch on our biceps in the bottom position and that the sticking point will shift a little bit lower. That’s good.

Illustration of a muscular man doing biceps curls with resistance bands.

So at first glance, resistance-band curls appear to be better than dumbbell curls. But resistance bands are not the same as cables. Resistance bands have variable resistance. As we stretch resistance bands further, the load gets progressively heavier. The beginning is fairly easy. The band only truly challenges our muscles at the end. We’ve turned a full biceps curl into a partial biceps curl. And, worse, it’s the most important part of the range of motion that’s rendered most useless.

Now, there are a thousand caveats here. We could pre-load the resistance band with enough tension to fail at the beginning of the range of motion. We could attach the resistance band at different angles. We could even do several sets with varying degrees of tension so that we fail at varying parts of the range of motion. Or we could take the set long past failure, to the point where we can’t stretch the band a single inch. But none of that is ideal. Resistance bands still make it harder to build muscle.

But just to make sure, I also asked the hypertrophy researcher, Eric Helms, PhD. He said, “Not a lot of research on the topic, but I would agree with your general recommendations of free weights and machines for hypertrophy, with bands and bodyweight working in a pinch.”

This is all to say that our bodies are built fairly well for lifting free weights like dumbbells, barbells, and kettlebells, and as a result, free weights make building muscle fairly easy. Resistance bands can still stimulate muscle growth, it’s just harder. Not the end of the world, but not ideal, either.

Accommodating Resistance

Accommodating resistance is when we add resistance bands or chains to free-weight lifts, such as the barbell back squat, bench press, and deadlift. Sometimes it’s used as an example of how resistance bands can be good for gaining muscle size and strength, but it’s actually quite different. To understand why that is, we need to understand what it’s for and what it does.

Accommodating resistance originated in geared powerlifting, where lifters would compete in squat suits, bench press shirts, and knee wraps designed to give them extra strength at the bottom of their lifts.

Illustration of a geared powerlifter doing a barbell back squat in a squat suit and knee wraps.

For example, let’s consider adding resistance bands to a barbell squat. A powerlifter is doing everything they can to improve their squatting leverage: standing with a wider stance, sitting further back, and holding the barbell lower on their backs. This creates a squat with a shortened range of motion, and it makes that bottom of the lift very hard. The bottom being hard isn’t a problem for building muscle, but to win at their sport, they need to lift the most weight by any means necessary.

One way to make the bottom of a squat easier is to wear a squat suit that stretches out at the bottom, giving the hips a boost. Another trick is to use knee wraps, stretching out at the bottom, giving the quads a boost. This helps to flatten the strength curve. The beginning of the lift is still the sticking point, but it’s a bit easier, and so they’re able to lift a bit more weight. But powerlifters wanted to lift a lot more weight, and as squat suits and knee wraps got thicker, the strength curve began to reverse. The beginning started to become the easier part of the lift, and the lockout started to get harder. That changes the type of strength that a powerlifter needs. Instead of needing a stronger chest to lift the barbell off their chest, they need stronger triceps to lock it out.

Now, how can a geared powerlifter train their lockout strength? One option is to always wear squats suits, bench shirts, and knee wraps. But that style of training is extremely heavy and hard to recover from. And besides, those pieces of equipment are kind of a pain in the ass. Fortunately, this weird strength curve can be mimicked by attaching bands (or chains) to a barbell. If the bands make the lift heaviest at the top, then the powerlifter can focus on training their lockout strength. It’s a sort of partial. (And sometimes they do partials, too, but partials are heavier and harder to recover from.)

Illustration of a powerlifter doing a barbell back squat with resistance bands (accommodating resistance).
The Banded Barbell Back Squat.

Nowadays, raw powerlifting is more popular than geared powerlifting. It’s rare to see a powerlifter who wears knee wraps and a triple-ply squat suit. Unless someone plans on wearing gear, that style of accommodating resistance does more harm than good. It makes the resistance curves worse for building muscle, and it isn’t great for developing the strength that powerlifters need at the bottom of the range of motion.

But then, a new idea started cropping up. These powerlifting lifts are still hardest at the beginning, and the top of the lift is indeed fairly easy. Couldn’t we build more muscle if we made the entire range of motion more challenging? Maybe! So far, it hasn’t panned out in the research, but it makes logical sense that if more of the range of motion was challenging, we’d stimulate more overall muscle growth with every rep.

However, the most fundamental rule of accommodating resistance is that the beginning of the lift still needs to be the hardest part. The idea is to add light resistance bands to heavy free weights. The light resistance bands make the lockout a bit harder, but the heavy free weights ensure that the bottom of the lift is still the hardest. Otherwise, adding resistance bands would make the lift worse for gaining size and strength.

Resistance Bands Without the Barbell

What if we remove the free weights entirely and squat with ONLY resistance bands? In that case, we’re making the resistance curve radically worse for stimulating muscle growth. Not that the lift becomes useless; it’s just that doing a regular squat with free weights would be much better.

Illustration of a man doing a squat with a resistance band.
The Resistance-Band Front Squat

Moreover, if we’re training to gain muscle size and general strength, shouldn’t be lifting like powerlifters. Instead of doing our squats with a wide stance and a shortened range of motion, probably better to do a deeper squat with the weight held in front of us. It reduces the amount of weight we can lift, yes, but it works our muscles through a longer range of motion, and it does a better job of bulking up our upper backs.

Illustration of a man doing a barbell front squat.
The Barbell Front Squat.

Thing is, the sticking point of a squat is always when the thighs are horizontal, but the front squat goes much deeper than that. This changes the strength curve. If we explode out of the hole, we can gather some momentum to help us drive through the sticking point. Plus, the tension on our upper backs comes from holding the weight in front of us, which is constant throughout the entire range of motion. The lockout is still the easiest part, and so accommodating resistance might still help, but the strength curve is already a bit flatter.

This same general trend is true of the other big compound hypertrophy lifts. Powerlifters bench press with big arches, reducing the stretch on our chests at the bottom of the lift. That’s bad for building muscle, so when lifting for hypertrophy, we use a smaller arch and focus on getting a bigger stretch. This gives us a bench press with a flatter strength curve, and thus diminishes the value of accommodating resistance. Not that it’s necessarily useless, mind you, just not all that important.

The Big Compound Lifts

Most of our muscle growth comes from doing the big compound lifts. Let’s review some examples of how using resistance bands change the dynamics of the big compound lifts.

Illustration of man doing front squats with kettlebells.
The kettlebell front squat.

Consider a front-loaded squat done with a barbell, dumbbells, or kettlebells, where we squat down as deep as our hips and knees allow, getting a nice stretch on our quads. These have proven, time and time again, to be better for building our quads than partial squats, even though partial squats are twice as heavy. Why is that? It’s because with a partial squat, we’re cutting out the most important parts of the range of motion: the sticking point and the stretch.

Now consider what happens when we do bodyweight squats with resistance bands. In the bottom position, the resistance band is loose, and so it’s very easy. Not good. As we get closer to the top of the range of motion, the resistance band is stretched, so the lift gets harder. This means we’re only truly challenging our quads at the very top of the range of motion. That’s not great for building muscle. Better than nothing, for sure, but it might not be better than body weight. We may build more muscle by doing bodyweight single-leg squats, where the bottom is the heaviest part of the lift:

Illustration of a man doing a Bulgarian split squat.
The Bulgarian split squat.

The same is true with the push-ups. Yes, we can load it heavier with resistance bands, but they make the top of the lift disproportionately harder. This means we’re no longer challenging our chests in a stretched position. Rather, we’re challenging our triceps at the lockout. A better way to replace the bench press is with the deficit push-up, where we raise our hands up so that we get an even bigger stretch on our chests and make the bottom of the lift harder:

Illustration of a man doing a deficit push-up.
The deficit push-up.

We start to run into problems when we get to back training. Most back lifts already have fairly poor strength curves. They’re easy at the bottom, hard at the top. That’s why it’s so hard to touch the barbell to our chest when rowing, so hard to touch our chests to the bar when doing chin-ups. If we add resistance bands to these pulling movements, they become atrocious. Resistance-band rows are incredibly easy at the start and extremely difficult at the end. Getting a cheap chin-up bar that you can bolt onto a wall or hook onto a doorframe doesn’t completely solve the strength curve, but it’s much better.

Different Lines of Pull

One feature of resistance bands is that depending on where we anchor them, we can create different lines of pull. That’s the same advantage of using a cable machine, and it can definitely be handy. However, that’s usually accompanied by the statement that because free weights resist gravity, they only allow us to train with a single line of pull. That’s not true, and it’s easy to see why.

Illustration of a man doing the overhead press to build broader shoulders.

If we think of a dumbbell or barbell overhead press, it’s true that, yes, we’re just pressing the weight straight up. It’s a vertical press. So the advantage that bands offer is that we can anchor them to a wall or door frame and create a horizontal press, right? That’s true.

But we can change the line of pull by changing the angle of our torsos. That gives us a bench press, a floor press, or a push-up. These free-weight variations have better strength curves for gaining muscle size and strength.

Illustration of a man doing a 3-point dumbbell row.

If we think about back movements, it’s the same thing. Chin-ups are a vertical pull, yes, but we’re not limited by that. If we bend at the waist, we can do horizontal rows with a barbell or dumbbell. And again, the free-weight variation has a strength curve that’s better for building muscle.

Illustration of a man doing dumbbell overhead triceps extensions.

This isn’t to say that resistance bands don’t offer any advantages. Being able to anchor the resistance bands in different positions can indeed allow us to get creative with our lifts. I think that’s one of the cooler things about them.

However, most of those movements have a dumbbell variation. Straight-arm lat pulldowns can be replaced by dumbbell pullovers. Triceps pushdowns can be replaced with overhead triceps extensions. And in most of these cases, the free-weight versions do a better job of challenging our muscles in a stretched position, so they do a better job of stimulating muscle growth.

Mobility & General Strength

When I started seeing these recommendations for resistance bands popping up everywhere, I asked Marco his thoughts on using resistance bands to develop general strength and athleticism. (Marco has coached college, professional, and Olympic athletes, and worked with the top strength coaches in the world.)

Marco shrugged and said that, yeah, we can build muscle with resistance bands, but it would be hard, we’d lose out on some general strength benefits, and that if someone had no equipment, he’d probably recommend bodyweight training instead.

There are a few reasons why free weights are so ubiquitous for helping guys get stronger and more athletic. One reason is that we get to stretch our muscles under load and then lift a weight through a large range of motion. This not only makes our muscles physically longer (which happens as we gain muscle) and able to stretch further (flexibility), but it also gives us strength through that complete range of motion (mobility). This makes strength and hypertrophy training great for improving our general strength and athleticism.

Illustration of a man doing a conventional barbell deadlift.

The problem with resistance bands is that we aren’t loading ourselves heavily in those stretched positions. That’s not only worse for stimulating muscle growth, it’s also worse for developing general strength and improving our mobility. After all, if the lift is easy at the bottom of the range of motion, then we aren’t developing as much mobility or strength there.

Mind you, any exercise can benefit us if we do it properly. Doing light exercise through a large range of motion still has many benefits. It’s just that if we have the choice, free weights are popular for strength and athletics training for a reason.

Improving Posture

Another great thing about lifting weights is, provided that we’re smart about it, it can be great for improving our posture. As with the above section, I don’t want to oversell the benefits of lifting weights or to overstate the harms of having poor posture—plenty of people have poor posture and never appear to suffer from it.

Illustration of a skinny guy becoming muscular from doing biceps curls.

Even so, I like how over the course of gaining fifty pounds of muscle, my back gradually straightened out, my gut stopped sticking out, and my head stopped jutting forward. Why did I get those postural improvements? Because when we deadlift, front squat, and even do biceps curls, our postural muscles need to hold us in the proper position, which strengthens our abs, obliques, spinal erectors and the myriad other muscles that hold us upright.

This may not be the case for everyone, but it seems that most skinny guys have poor posture simply because our postural muscles are too weak. When we strengthen our postural muscles, that problem disappears.

It helps to have a barbell, but we don’t need one. If we have a reasonably heavy dumbbell or two, we can do all of those same movements, just in higher rep ranges or while training one limb at a time. For example, we can swap out heavy conventional deadlifts for split-stance Romanian deadlifts while holding a dumbbell in each hand:

Illustration of a man doing a split-stance dumbbell Romanian deadlift.
The back leg helps with balance, the front leg does the lifting.

Even though the dumbbell Romanian deadlift is quite a bit lighter than a barbell deadlift, our spinal erectors and other core muscles must work for twice as long, giving them a fairly good stimulus.

The next question, then, is whether resistance bands will give those same postural benefits. They might, but perhaps not to the same extent. With resistance bands, the lift is only heavy at the very top, often when the load on our spinal erectors is the lowest (as with the deadlift). Plus, most of the range of motion is easy on our postural muscles, meaning there’s less overall work done with every rep.

The Advantages of Resistance Bands

Accessibility & Affordability

There are a few obvious benefits to resistance bands. They’re cheaper and more portable than free weights, and they allow us to do a ton of different exercises from the comfort of our living rooms. This makes them a nice addition to a bodyweight workout routine. This doesn’t necessarily make them better than free weights, but it does make them better than nothing. And again, perfection isn’t needed to build muscle. If we challenge our muscles, they will grow.

Pump Training

Another thing that resistance bands are famous for is that they make it easy to do metabolite training. Metabolite training is when you lift in higher rep ranges (12–40 reps per set) while keeping constant tension on your muscles (often doing partial reps), using short rest times between sets. This floods our muscles with metabolite-filled blood, gives us a muscle “pump,” and increases our production of local growth factors and hormones (such as growth hormone).

Dr Brad Schoenfeld proposed that metabolite “pump” training stimulates muscle growth via metabolic stress (study). The potency of that pathway has been questioned lately, but there’s no doubt that it can provoke muscle growth.

Illustration of a man with burning shoulders.

The Hormone Hypothesis

When discussing metabolite training, we should also talk about the hormone hypothesis. This is the idea that if we train in a way that increases our production of certain hormones, such as growth hormone, we can build muscle more quickly. Recent research shows that this probably isn’t the case. There doesn’t seem to be a connection between growth hormone and muscle growth, even when researchers give study participants extremely high doses.

Furthermore, doing heavier sets of 6–12 reps, easing tension between reps, and taking longer rest periods between sets seems to work just as well for building muscle—sometimes better (study).

Can Resistance Bands Stimulate More Growth?

Moving onto the more scrupulous claims, there’s one resistance band company claiming resistance bands stimulate THREE TIMES as much muscle growth as free weights. The first problem with that claim is that they reference a study on accommodating resistance, which is not the same thing as resistance-band training (as covered above). The bigger problem is that the study states: “while lean body mass was not significantly different between groups, both groups did significantly increase their lean body mass over the course of the study.”

The study proves the opposite point. It found that free weights stimulate muscle growth whether we add resistance bands.

Research Comparing Free Weights vs Resistance Bands

We have a few reasons to think resistance bands might not be ideal for building muscle. However, it’s hard to say any of this with certainty. Resistance bands don’t seem to have ever been considered very seriously for building muscle (outside of physiotherapy).

Most resistance-band research doesn’t relate to muscle growth. There’s research looking at accommodating resistance, where free weights are combined with resistance bands, but that’s entirely different—the vast majority of the load comes from the free weights. And there’s also EMG research looking into muscle activation with resistance bands versus free weights, but that’s kind of useless here because EMG favours lifts that are harder at shorter muscle lengths, which is the opposite of what’s ideal for building muscle. Finally, there are studies comparing resistance bands with isometric dumbbell lifts, but that’s not how people lift weights (because it’s not as good for building muscle).

Training with resistance bands feels harder. What’s interesting is that in a lot of these studies looking into resistance bands, the participants said that they needed to put in a lot more effort to stimulate their muscles with resistance bands. Maybe that’s because they’re less stable, or maybe it’s because of the unnatural strength curve, but the research does show that building muscle with resistance bands feels harder (study, study).

We also have some research showing that resistance bands aren’t as good at stimulating our prime movers. For example, in a bench press, resistance bands aren’t as good at stimulating our chests. We’ve already talked about why that might be. Our chests grow best when loaded in a stretched position, and resistance bands don’t do that. It’s our shoulders and triceps that wind up bearing more of the load.

Another thing that keeps coming up in the research is that resistance bands are inherently less stable. As a general rule of thumb, stable training is better for building muscle because it allows us to focus more on moving the weight, less on stabilizing it. Mind you, dumbbells demand more of our stabilizer muscles, too, and are just as good at stimulating muscle growth as barbells (article), so I’m not sure if this would actually have an impact on hypertrophy. Mind you, resistance bands are much less stable than dumbbells.

We know that free weights are great for building muscle, and we can say that with certainty—they’re the industry standard. There are also good reasons to think that resistance bands wouldn’t be as effective, but it’s hard to say by how much, or whether it matters.

The Best Resistance Bands for Building Muscle

Resistance bands may not be totally ideal for building muscle, but they’re quite convenient. Maybe you want to buy some anyway. There are a few different types of resistance bands, all somewhat similar. After all, they all have variable resistance, where the resistance increases the further you stretch them. Still, some bands are notably better than others.

The cheapest resistance bands tend to be tubes with handles at the ends. However, those resistance bands are known to snap, sending the handles flying, taking out eyes and TV screens. Better to get the more durable looped bands.

Shane Duquette holding Rogue resistance bands, which are great for building muscle.
Here’s me with a Rogue Monster Band (and Rogue home gym).

The thicker looped bands can be used for accommodating resistance, assisted chin-ups, banded deadlifts, and other heavier movements. The lighter ones can be used for biceps curls, triceps extensions, lateral raises, and banded push-ups. Of these, I think Rogue’s Monster Bands are the best quality. These are the ones I got.

As a bonus, Rogue Fitness has other valuable home workout tools. They’ve got a parallette set for doing deficit push-ups, handstand push-ups, and dips, as well as a variety of pull-up bars and gymnastics rings that you can do chin-ups with. Their products aren’t cheap, but they’re great.

*These are affiliate links. But even before becoming an affiliate, I bought my entire barbell home gym from them. Rogue’s stuff is great.

With that said, you don’t need to get this specific brand of resistance band; just try to get this specific type of band. Look for the sturdy looped bands, as shown in the photo above. These are the same bands you’ll see from popular companies like UnderSun Fitness, who also have a good reputation for producing high-quality resistance bands.


Resistance bands can be used to build muscle, and if that’s all you have access to, then you may as well take advantage of them. They can absolutely work. However, it’s quicker and easier to build muscle with free weights.

Before and after photo showing that weight training gives better results than resistance bands.

Alright, that’s it for now. If you want more muscle-building information, we have a free bulking newsletter for skinny guysIf you want a full foundational bulking program, including a 5-month full-body workout routine, diet guide, recipe book, and online coaching, check out our Bony to Beastly Bulking Program. Or, if you want a customizable intermediate bulking program, check out our Outlift Program.

Shane Duquette is the co-founder and creative lead of Outlift, Bony to Beastly, and Bony to Bombshell, and has a degree in design from York University in Toronto, Canada. He's personally gained sixty pounds at 11% body fat and has nine years of experience helping over ten thousand skinny people bulk up.

Marco Walker-Ng is the co-founder and strength coach of Outlift, Bony to Beastly, and Bony to Bombshell, and is a certified trainer (PTS) with a Bachelor's degree in Health Sciences (BHSc) from the University of Ottawa. His specialty is helping people build muscle to improve their strength and general health, with clients including college, professional, and Olympic athletes.

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  1. NickA on April 10, 2020 at 3:42 pm

    Perfect timing with this article guys. I was asking myself the same questions lately. Thank you for the references too!

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 3:54 pm

      Our pleasure, man! I hope you’re doing well, all things considered 🙂

    • Tom on April 11, 2020 at 12:03 am

      I do not agree. I am a 48 year old ex powerlifter. I use bands incorporated with Bulgarian bags, Power ropes & sandbags. You do not need free weights to build muscle. Bands twice a week, Bulgarian bag weighted push-ups with ropes & sand bag cleans works just fine. 6 to 7 sets of Giant super sets one day. Power ropes 10 30 seconds to 1 minute waves or power slams & sandbag cleans. Chose a weight you can do 6 to 10 sets of 10.

      • Willie on May 21, 2020 at 9:32 pm

        Correct. I have a BS in Exercise Science and have just read a recent book by Chris Beardsley on Hypertrophy to boot. When it comes to hypertrophy, we are looking at what happens at the fiber level and what stimulates growth is based upon the force -velocity relationship in which the slower the contraction (not purposefully) the more force the fiber produces. If you do a weight that’s 40-~85% of your 1RM, you’re able to stimulate growth.

        What you’re looking for is fiber recruitment, doing the weight as fast as possible AND force production, which is getting to a point where you’ve fatigued the muscle so the velocity of the lift slows and the individual fiber produces much higher levels of force.

        When it comes to strength curves, one has to remember to use the proper resistance. If I can curl 35, I set up my bands so that the BEGINNING of the pull is at 35 pounds (if I can’t do more than 4 reps, I change the resistance slightly).

        All we are really going to have to play around with is HOW the hypertrophy takes place: are we going to see increases in muscle length or diameter?

        In short: you have to stimulate the muscle properly at the fiber level. If you’re not doing that, free weights or whatever, you’re not going to see growth.

        This is why doing optometric work doesn’t actually build muscle. Improper stimulation at the fiber level. Do all the jump squats you want, and you’ll get sore as all hell but the hypertrophy is minimal.

        • Shane Duquette on May 22, 2020 at 10:34 am

          Hey Willie, thank you for the comment.

          I haven’t seen the research, but it doesn’t surprise me that optometric work (where optometrists prescribe corrective lenses to help people fix deficiencies in their eyesight) doesn’t stimulate much muscle growth 😉

          Recruiting our muscle fibres by lifting in a suitable rep range and taking our lifts close enough to failure is important, too, absolutely. That doesn’t really have anything to do with free weights versus resistance bands, though. Both can do that.

          When we’re talking about strength curves, we aren’t talking about using the appropriate amount of weight, we’re talking about which part of the range of motion is most challenging. As discussed in the article, lifts that challenge our muscles in a stretched position stimulate more muscle growth than lifts that challenge our muscles in a contracted position, regardless of what percentage of our 1RM we use.

          I do agree with you, though, that resistance bands can be used to build muscle. I think that part of the message got a bit lost in the article. I’m not saying they don’t stimulate muscle growth. They do. I’m just arguing that free weights stimulate even more muscle growth.

          • Willie on May 24, 2020 at 4:31 pm

            There really is no reason to believe they stimulate MORE muscle growth given rate coding, the size principle, the force-velocity relationship or what actually happens at the fiber level.

            The strength curve is specifically about how we address sticking points and not about hypertrophy to the muscle at a fiber level, but how each strength curve affects HOW the muscle will find its particular growth pattern: flat, ascending, bell, descending. This is why we use various exercises to hit muscles at various angles to achieve growth throughout the muscle as a whole. Some can affect fiber recruitment differently, but when all else is similar in that starting resistance and curve are similar, the only true thing creating hypertrophy is stimulating reps.

            When it comes to curves we have active and passive elements to exercise that affect how the muscle growth occurs but not the growth as a whole.

            The major difference is confronting inertia and gravity at the beginning of a bell curve curl vs. simply elastic resistance hitting increasingly harder throughout the movement. This implies that the muscle grows differently and not that one elicits more growth.

          • Willie on May 24, 2020 at 4:43 pm

            Nobody would argue a partial range of motion brought close to failure at the right weight won’t elicit growth. It would only argue that growth would be different than free weights.

            Much like machines result in different kinds of growth than free weights and cables do as well.

            None of these methods are simply better for hypertrophy.

          • Shane Duquette on May 25, 2020 at 8:28 am

            We DO see different amounts of growth when challenging our muscles at different parts of the range of motion, though. If we look at a systematic review of all 26 studies looking into this (as cited in the article), we see nearly three times as much muscle growth when challenging our muscles at longer muscle lengths.

            There’s a mechanistic reason for it, too. The main driver of muscle growth is mechanical tension. When a muscle is stretched, there’s passive tension being added to active tension, meaning that there’s more overall mechanical tension. Having that higher peak amount of mechanical tension then stimulates more muscle growth.

          • Attack.defense on June 6, 2020 at 12:57 pm

            “Lifts that challenge our muscles in a stretched position stimulate more muscle growth.”

            With resistance bands, would starting from a position so that the bands are already stretched…so that the beginning of the positive motion is challenging, fix the problem?

          • Shane Duquette on June 6, 2020 at 2:00 pm

            That would challenge our muscles more in a stretched position, but then the problem is that we also want to lift through a large range of motion. Ideally, we’d have lifts that are hardest when our muscles are in a stretched position but that still allow us to lift through a full range of motion. Lifts like the front squat, bench press, and deadlift are great for that.

            But it’s not the end of the world if the lift isn’t hardest in a stretched position. You can still build muscle with resistance bands. It may not be ideal, but it does still work 🙂

            Some bodyweight exercises have great strength curves, too. You could supplement resistance-band training with deficit push-ups and chin-ups and whatnot.

        • Willie on May 24, 2020 at 4:51 pm

          PLYOMETRIC work. I thought you might have gotten that point through context.

          You can go through full ROM with weight that’s below threshold necessary and you won’t see any growth. Strength curve doesn’t matter in growth vs. non-growth but in what kind of growth you’d expect to see. Length or width? 😉

          • Shane Duquette on May 25, 2020 at 8:22 am

            I hear ya. I was just kidding with you 🙂

          • Willie on May 25, 2020 at 12:54 pm

            What we both know is that ROM reflects in a specific kind of growth regionally in a muscle and not a dichotomy of growth vs. non-growth.

            The mechanistic reason for it is that the fibers most stimulated result in the most growth. Hypertrophy is based on what happens at the fiber and not the muscle itself.

            This is also why recent research shows some muscles may benefit from less than full ROM in regards to specific regional muscle hypertrophy.

            Anyone still attempting to argue that one type of resistance is better for hypertrophy really don’t understand hypertrophy or what what causes it.

            There’s recent research where a load cell is used to regulate resistance by bands comparatively in resistance training and showing hypertrophy being comparable: makes sense considering that resistance only has to meet a certain threshold to stimulate the proper fatigue to create full recruitment of high threshold motor units and to induce the force-velocity relationship needed to produce hypertrophy, Right? 😉

            It’s really that simple.

            I’d really wish more “fitness gurus” understood what happens at the fiber level to produce hypertrophy and stopped relying on guesses made around muscle damage and metabolic stress when looking at the reality of mechanical tension being THE driving factor AND WHY.

            You seem to have hobbled together some ideas that don’t actually show a deeper understanding of the science, and if you’re going to keep this writing up, I’d suggest having an expert in the field edit and fact check your opinions.

            I wish you the best in your journey, but would never advise anyone talking to those that understand the science to repeat what you’ve stood by, here.

          • Shane Duquette on May 25, 2020 at 3:00 pm

            I’m not arguing with you that mechanical tension is the main driver of muscle growth, but rather that the length-tension relationship factors into mechanical tension. When we challenge our muscles at greater muscle lengths, peak mechanical tension is greater, and so more muscle growth is stimulated. The referenced systematic review goes over 26 studies showing that to be the case. If you look at the differences in hypertrophy, challenging muscles at longer muscle lengths resulted in nearly 3x greater muscle growth.

            Marco has a BHSc, is a fully certified strength coach, has interned under some of the top experts, has over a decade of experience helping thousands of people bulk up, including world-class athletes, such as our Canadian Olympic rugby team. Before we wrote this article, I asked him what he thought of resistance bands. He told me that they can work if that’s all someone has, but that they aren’t very effective, and he’d much rather use other methods to help people build muscle. If you look at the methods that other top strength coaches use, you’ll see that they primarily use free weights, too.

            Just to make sure we weren’t totally off base, though, I also asked Greg Nuckols, MA, from Monthly Applications in Strength Sport (MASS). He confirmed that challenging our muscles in a stretched position seems to be better at stimulating muscle growth. Regarding resistance bands, he called their strength curves “wonky,” if I recall correctly, but said that they can be used to build muscle if nothing else is available. That’s the same stance we’re taking. I don’t think it’s all that controversial.

            On that note, here’s a relevant quote from MASS, written by Greg Nuckols and reviewed by Eric Helms, PhD, Eric Trexler, PhD, and Mike Zourdos, PhD: “While active contractile tension of a muscle tends to be highest at around resting length, passive tension from non-contractile elements (the tendons and muscle fascia) increases as muscle length increases, such that total muscular tension is generally highest when muscles are in a stretched position. Tension primarily seems to matter for hypertrophy because tension is sensed at costameres (where muscles attach to the surrounding fascia), which activate a protein called focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which then triggers the mTOR pathway, which is primarily responsible for exercise-induced hypertrophic signaling. In exquisitely controlled rodent research (study), it’s been shown that tension itself, not just active tension generated by muscle contraction, is what kicks off this pathway. Thus, even though active tension drops off, the disproportionate increase in passive tension, which leads to more total tension, should also lead to more hypertrophic signaling.”

            The main thing I asked Greg about (before writing this article) was if regional hypertrophy meant that there might be a benefit to challenging our muscles at a variety of different muscle lengths, such as choosing some exercises that challenge our muscles while stretched and others that challenge our muscles while contracted. He said that, no, there’s no evidence of that, and he’s skeptical that it would help. He thinks it’s better to focus on lifts that challenge our muscles at longer muscle lengths.

            I wish you the best on your journey, too, man!

      • Lavalley on June 14, 2022 at 10:20 am

        It never said that you *Needed Free weights* Nor did it apply as such. You need to read the entire article. It stated that you can build muscle using bands, and that if you incorporated them and enjoy them then that was fine. However it just educates on why free weights are a better option for the majority of times when trying to induce a hypertrophic stimulus. I.E from what we know from how muscle mass is formulated. It’s simple, we know that the stretch incorporated with load induces an incredible amount muscle growth and should be the standard, Most bands besides maybe reverse bands don’t allow this. And thats important for a lot of people to hear if they are interested in using bands is all.

  2. Nate on April 10, 2020 at 4:20 pm

    Hi Shane what do you think about systems like X3, which claims to have a lot of research behind it? Here’s a link to their science page, not sure I can post the link here but remove it if it’s an issue. It’s hard separating hype from reality so just curious on your take on it…

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 5:50 pm

      This is a neat question, yeah. This science page is weird, though.

      The research there doesn’t say what it seems to be saying. The study he uses to prove that resistance bands are better than free weights is a study on accommodating resistance: adding resistance bands to free weights (as powerlifters often do). That absolutely works. The free weights make up the majority of the load, making the lift hard at the bottom of the range of motion. The bands kick in at the top, making the lockout hard as well. It’s a way of further flattening the resistance curve created by free weights. But if we remove the free weights, then we’re left with the resistance curve of just the bands, which is not good.

      The next problem is that he claims that the study shows 3x the amount of muscle growth in the accommodating resistance group, but that’s not what the study says. It did find larger gains in strength from accommodating resistance, but there was no difference in muscle growth between the two groups. The conclusion of the study states: “while lean body mass was not significantly different between groups, both groups did significantly increase their lean body mass over the course of the study.”

      Also, there are some other good studies looking at how accommodating resistance affects strength gains. If we look at them as a whole, they fail to show much benefit (or downside). When it comes to muscle growth, as with this study, it’s not even clear if accomodating resistance produces ANY extra muscle growth (although it might!). But again, that’s not what X3 is. Accommodating resistance is adding a light band to a heavy barbell, not adding a light bar to a heavy band.

      Then he talks about electromyography (EMG) research, and this is admittedly not something I know a great deal about, but if I understand it correctly, EMG research runs into problems when comparing muscle activation at different muscle lengths. It gives higher readings when muscles are in shorter positions, which is where resistance bands are heaviest, but that’s a relatively unimportant part of the range of motion for stimulating muscle growth. For example, EMG research finds much higher glute activation in hip thrusts (hardest at the top), but squats produce much greater amounts of glute growth (hardest at the bottom/middle).

      So, yeah, the X3 system would have all of the downsides mentioned in the article. What’s even weirder is that this guy claims that free weights are a bad way to build muscle, which is total nonsense. That’s not what the research shows, it’s not what the experts recommend, it’s not what bodybuilders (including natural bodybuilders) use to build muscle, that’s not how Olympic athletes lift, or professional athletes. It doesn’t make any sense.

      But again, it’s not that resistance bands can’t stimulate muscle growth. They can. It’s just that free weights appear to do an even better job of it.

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 6:03 pm

      Also, take what I say here with a grain of salt. This is my first time looking into this. I didn’t look into it deeply.

      • Coty on April 11, 2020 at 7:50 pm

        I would take a deeper look then. If you understand the principles of GH and different forms of training that can cause larger dumps of GH (I.E. BFR training) there is definitely something to his methodology. Pro bodybuilders have been using BFR training for decades (even if they didn’t know why it worked so well). I have trained BFR and had amazing results. I just bought the X3 as a skeptic but am keeping an open mind. After doing a few of the workouts in get the same pump/burn I get while doing BFR. Not saying that means I will get a GH dump, but it sure feels like it.

        For the record, I am not a proponent of band training, but I’m opened minded to anything. I think shooting down his website and product with a quick once over of the research is a bit of a jump. The idea that you could not build muscle with bands when they have the equivalency of a 450lb deadlift (elite band) for someone that is approximately 6′ is a bold statement.

        6′ male
        9% bf
        @spraggeth IG if you need to check. Only have a few videos posted though.

        • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 10:26 pm

          Hey Coty, I agree that people can build muscle with bands. I’m not trying to suggest that it’s impossible to build muscle with bands. Just that it’s easier to build muscle with free weights.

          I also agree with you that blood flow restriction training (BFR) is a proven method with a lot of high-quality research to back it up. As an overall approach, it doesn’t work as well as regular training done with free weights, but it works well when done in combination with free weights (which is what most people do). It’s not magic, but it can be an effective part of a muscle-building plan, for sure.

          Getting a pump can be good, yeah. Resistance bands can be good for that if you’re doing higher reps with constant tension. Free weights can be good for that, too, if you train with that same pump-oriented style. In either case, that can be a good way to finish a workout.

          I’m not trying to shoot down a product. It could be that people really enjoy it. I think resistance training (and exercise in general) is great, and there’s no need for people to do it in a totally optimal way. I was just commenting on the claim that resistance bands allow us to build muscle three times faster than free weights, but the proof is a study showing that accommodating resistance DOESN’T cause extra muscle growth when compared with just free weights.

          Plus, the study is on accommodating resistance, which involves getting most of the load from free weights anyway. Adding a band to a heavy deadlift makes it harder at the lockout so that the entire range of motion is challenging, which is either neutral (as this study suggests) or good (as future studies may show) for building muscle. But a resistance band is only challenging at the top, which is bad for stimulating muscle growth.

          I was also challenging the claim that variable resistance is good for building muscle. I don’t think that’s the case, and I’ve explained my reasoning above.

          • Coty on April 11, 2020 at 11:38 pm

            I really appreciate your approach in the way you look at this and have been trying to respond since you wrote me last. However, the website seems to be a bit laggy no matter the internet source that I try (fiber and mobile seem to have issues getting your site to load).

            You are a little flawed in the way that you are approaching this because I think you are looking at this research incorrectly. For one, the research shows a much greater increase in the hormone response (GH, test, cortisol) with banded training as opposed to free weight only. I think we can both agree that would make that a positive for banded training. If we can’t agree on that then this conversation would have to be dead.

            Second, your idea behind your logical approach to this is flawed as well. You are correct in stating that the movement when using free weight resistance (FWR) is harder it the mid-range movement. However, it isn’t due to the fact that you are using FW, it is due to the levers and the mechanical advantages that you are currently at (IE the weight is furthest from your body at mid-range). This does not change when doing banded curls, your lever is still at its least advantageous position at mid-range using bands. However, the difference being in FWR the rep gets easier once past the mid-range; in banded resistance the rep gets harder as the bands are pulled (the mechanical aspect does go in your favor however).

            Third, you are not looking at the banded+FWR training research in the proper light. FWR training combined with banded resisted training (CR) is essentially the same as doing bands the whole time. For example, when doubling up the Elite band with the X3, it is around a 400ish-lb deadlift at the BOTTOM. This is identical to doing a 400lb FWR deadlift at the start. However, with the bands, it gets harder every inch that you go up. Your argument that a band is only difficult at the bottom is a highly flawed statement. The deadlift is hard from bottom to top with the elite (the others are not that difficult).

            (Your website just crashed on me after trying to submit and I am having to retype the rest of this)

            Fourth, it is widely accepted that eccentric muscle contractions cause a muscle to hypertrophy more than a concentric muscle contraction. Banded training is known to have a much greater eccentric contraction than that of a FWR training. That is all I will say on this.

            I think if you take a step back and look at this completely objectively (hard to do when we are biased), you will see that banded training offers a lot advantages over that of FWR training. However, FWR training offers a ton of benefits over that of banded training. They both have a place. In my opinion, you will do significantly more with the X3 than you will with some kettlebells (I do both of these most days since the shelter-in-place).

            I love FWR training. Nothing will ever have a place in my heart like it does. Bands do not make steel bend around me when I am trying to back squat a set at 585. They don’t make my shins bleed when PRing on DL (the X3 actually did once because I wasn’t used to training with it but it was coming down from OH press hahah).

            I really appreciate you having a conversation and keeping a cool head with everyone when they are coming at you from all angles. I do agree with you that the dude selling is making some claims that are bit BS (traditional style workouts don’t gain muscle bwhahaha what?). Either way, I suggest you get one of these and try them out. It isn’t your typical TheraBand exercise band.

          • Shane Duquette on April 12, 2020 at 10:31 am

            My pleasure, man! I write about this stuff because I love it, and I really enjoy having these conversations. I appreciate you taking the time to comment.

            The site is loading slowly because this article started trending on Google Discover and a ton of people are all suddenly trying to load the article at once. I’m sorry for that. It’s going to clear up soon. It’s already gotten better.

            You’re talking about the “hormone hypothesis” to muscle growth, where the idea is to train with higher reps, shorter rest times, and keep constant tension on our muscles. That was a really popular way of training for muscle growth up until about a decade ago, at which point evidence started coming out that growth hormone doesn’t cause muscle growth (study), and that longer rest periods between sets can improve muscle growth despite lowering the hormonal response to training (study). That doesn’t mean that training with higher reps, shorter rest periods, and constant tension is worse. Far from it. It’s still an effective way to train. But it’s not a better way to train. If anything, it might be slightly worse. The best approach, though, is probably to combine both styles of training, starting a workout with some heavier compound lifts and then finishing it off with some pump work.

            I’m not sure why being able to train that way would be a positive for banded training, though. If you wanted that effect with free weights, you’d just lift in a way that keeps constant tension on the muscles (e.g avoiding the lockout), you’d lift in higher rep ranges, you’d shorten rest times, you might even use BFR. But the reason people don’t favour that type of training is that it isn’t necessarily better. It’s just one of several effective ways of building muscle, and it can be done with either free weights or resistance bands. But with free weights, you’d also be getting more mechanical tension on your muscles by challenging them in a more stretched position. Free weights are still better.

            I don’t think I’m misunderstanding the role of lever lengths in determining the resistance curve of a lift. This article explains lever lengths with both text and by drawing diagrams, and I’ve linked out to two more in-depth articles I’ve written on how external moment arms affect the resistance curve of lifts, as well as how our internal moments somewhat cancel that out. As you’ve mentioned, though, resistance bands add a new variable to the mix: variable resistance. It makes the lifts easier at the beginning and harder at the end. Now, it’s not that we can’t put any tension on our muscles at the bottom of a lift, it’s that there’s less tension on our muscles at the bottom of the lift. It’s disproportionately easy compared to the end. That’s not ideal for building muscle. If anything, we want the opposite, where the lift is harder at the beginning (where our muscles are stretched).

            Accommodating resistance is different from using resistance bands. With free weights, you’re correct that some lifts are easier near the lockout. That’s not true of the chin-up or row, but it’s true of the deadlift, squat, and bench press. For those lifts, some people like to add bands or chains to make the end of the lift a bit harder, flattening the strength curve. The goal is to make the lift equally challenging throughout. However, even then, relatively light resistance bands are used to make sure that the lift is still hard enough at the beginning to be good for stimulating muscle growth. The only people who use high amounts of band tension are geared powerlifters who are trying to train specifically for lifting in squat suits and bench shirts. Adding a little bit of tension from bands might help with building muscle, although so far there’s no evidence of that. But adding a lot of band tension makes the strength curve worse for gaining size and strength. If all we’re using are resistance bands, that would be even worse.

            Eccentric training can stimulate muscle growth, yes. But again, that’s a whole different style of training. Our muscles are much stronger while lowering weights, and so we’d need to use much heavier weights with eccentric training—heavier than we’d be able to lift. For example, instead of doing barbell curls, we’d do power curls, where we thrust a too-heavy barbell up with our hips and then lower it down slowly. The reason it isn’t popular is that it causes absurd amounts of muscle damage. As an overall approach, it’s not actually better for building muscle. That’s why we choose weights that we’re strong enough to actually lift. Does lowering those weights challenge our muscles enough to provoke growth? Not really. But does that matter? Not really.

            Now, this doesn’t mean that resistance bands can’t be useful or that we can’t build muscle with them. We totally can. But when compared against free weights, free weights are generally better for building muscle.

            And again, I appreciate the comments, man. Thank you!

    • Zen on April 16, 2020 at 4:31 pm

      Hey Shane

      Awesome article with a great update! It’s so useful to have the myth-busting and clarification. It really puts it into perspective.

      Keep up the good work!

  3. Derek on April 10, 2020 at 4:49 pm

    Thanks for this, man! I just bought some bands and I’m wondering if I should swap them for dumbells.

    What do you think about this guy who does X3 bar? His schtick is that you do reps until you can’t even move the bar anymore. You might do 8 at full range of motion, then 8 at partial range, then 8 at a third range. It’s all one set and completely fatigues the muscle. Does that seem kinda BS?

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 6:01 pm

      I think if you have bands you can find some fun stuff to do with them. If you have the option to swap them for dumbbells, I would, but you can absolutely still use them.

      Have you tried them yet? How do you like them?

      Regarding the X3 stuff, check out the comment above yours. It’s … weird. The science page (unless I’m sorely mistaken) seems to have some major mistakes. For example, the study he references to show that accommodating resistance produces 3x more muscle growth didn’t actually have those findings. The conclusion of the study states: “while lean body mass was not significantly different between groups, both groups did significantly increase their lean body mass over the course of the study.” But X3 isn’t accommodating resistance anyway. Accommodating resistance is effective, but it involves lifting free weights AND using bands. It’s when you add a chain to your barbell bench press.

      I’m not sure if completely fatiguing the muscle like that is a good way to build muscle. It’s an interesting idea, but lifting to failure doesn’t produce more growth than stopping a rep shy, and it comes along with the downsides of producing a ton of extra fatigue and muscle damage. That approach sounds like the equivalent of doing a bunch of cheat reps—going BEYOND failure. But again, I’m not sure.

      Finally, it makes me skeptical when one specific product claims to have the ultimate solution, especially when it goes against the overall body of evidence, the expert opinion, what all the best lifters do, and tradition.

      But I’ll totally admit to having a bias towards the conventional. I want to do what has been proven to work. I want all the kinks already worked out. I like all the research to provide the ins and outs of how to min-max our training. I’m not a hypertrophy revolutionary.

      • Derek on April 11, 2020 at 1:28 pm

        Hey Shane, thanks for the thoughtful reply! What you’re saying makes a lot of sense.

        • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 10:41 pm

          After you mentioned that approach of failing at all different parts of the range of motion, I thought it was interesting, so I was thinking about it a little bit more.

          If we look at a chin-up, we have an iffy strength curve where the lift is disproportionately hard at the very end, similar to resistance bands. To do a “complete” pull-up, we need to bring our chests all the way to the bar. However, when training for muscle growth, we usually want to push our sets a little further than that. We want to do an extra couple of reps. If our chin passes the bar, it counts. It’s a “chin-up,” after all. So I think that idea of doing a bit more work once we’ve failed at the very top of a lift does make sense in some cases. But this is a way of mitigating a small downside, not an advantage.

          Plus, we can do this with any lift! We could squat higher and higher every rep, starting with deeps squats and ending with partial squats. Same with the bench press, starting from the chest and doing smaller and smaller partials. So, yeah, it is doing cheat reps. It’s just more similar to doing cheat reps on a chin-up or barbell row, where the top is the hardest.

  4. Dustin on April 10, 2020 at 6:15 pm

    Thanks for the great article! This post doesn’t have anything to do with bands, other than I’ve found a way to not have to use them & thought I’d share for your readers that it applies to (limited space, funds, can’t find equipment right now, etc$

    I live in apartment with limited space for equipment. I found that for $80 I could pick up a sandbag with multiple filler bags so I could start with my big compound lifts & take out weight as I progressed through the workout to smaller isolation lifts. It’s insane how much I’ve been able to do with this one piece of equipment.

    Bands just don’t do it for me. Sure, they’ll stress the muscle, but it just doesn’t motivate me the way moving something heavy does.

    Sure with the sandbag I can’t load it enough to do a heavy 3rep set or anything (cleaning & pressing that over my shoulders would be a no go, ha) but I can up my reps, focus on MMC, & do slow controlled reps working all those stabilizer muscles to combat the shifting sand. You can get these things up to 220lb!

    Best solution I’ve been able to find to the current gym less situation. They are currently available, very economical, & don’t take up much space. Plus they work all those smaller muscles that may not get as much love. Most importantly I still get to do my big lifts (stiff leg DL, squats (front & back), rows, presses, cleans) I’ve found a way to work every muscle group & get a good pump.

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 10:02 pm

      That sounds like a sweet setup, man! It sounds like a pretty effective way to build muscle, too. And fun! I dig it 🙂

  5. Robert on April 10, 2020 at 7:39 pm

    Thanks so much for publishing this. I was thinking about getting some resistance bands but this made me think twice. With that said, I live in a small apartment and don’t have the space for any of the equipment you recommended in your barbell home gym article. What kind of equipment would you recommend getting for guys who live in small urban apartments? I have a pullup bar and have been trying to get by with that plus situps, pushups, etc. Really hoping I can avoid losing my hard earned gains until my gym reopens. Thanks again!

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 9:48 pm

      Hey Robert,

      Between a pull-up bar and push-ups, you’re already doing pretty well for upper body training. Add in some jump squats or single-legged squats and you’ve got a pretty good makeshift muscle-building workout.

      If all you’re trying to do is maintain your gains while you wait for the gym to open back up, I think you’d be okay with what you have. You could make good progress on your chest by doing a few sets of deficit push-ups to failure a few times per week, you could do handstand or pike push-ups for your shoulders, chin-ups for your back and biceps, and crunches/hanging leg raises for your abs. I bet you’d be able to make good progress on all of those muscle groups.

      With your legs, glutes, spinal erectors, traps, and some of the smaller muscle groups, you might just maintain or even lose a bit of muscle, but that’s not really much of a concern. Within a couple of weeks of being back at the gym, that muscle would spring right back.

      If you want to go beyond just doing makeshift workouts, though, my recommendation would be to get a couple of kettlebells, a couple of dumbbells, or a pair of adjustable dumbbells. Again, it all depends on how much you want to spend and how permanent you want your home gym to be. Adjustable dumbbells are more expensive but allow you to do entire bulking programs without any real compromises.

      When I made my own makeshift home gym, I decided to get kettlebells. Even cheap ones are very sturdy and comfortable to grip, so I found them more comfortable for goblet squats, overhead presses, rows, carries, and overhead triceps extensions. And then for my chest, I’d use them as handles for my deficit push-ups. Kettlebells aren’t totally ideal for some of the other lifts (such as curls), but they get the job done. And your pull-up bar will take care of your biceps anyway.

      So I think the correct answer is to get some sort of adjustable dumbbell, but sometimes the cheaper ones can be rickety, so it really depends on how much you’re willing to spend and what quality you’d be satisfied with. So if I were in your position and was planning on eventually going back to the gym, I might get, say, a 25 and 50-pound kettlebell. (Back in the day, I got a 15, 35, 50, and 75-pounder, but I mainly used the 35 and 50.)

      I really hope that helps. I’ll be going into more detail on this stuff in our next article, too.

      • Robert on April 11, 2020 at 3:53 am


        Thanks so much for the fast and detailed reply. The kind of personal attention that you and the other founders give to members is one of the reasons I’ve been a part of the B2B community for over five years.

        Regarding my goals, the reason I originally said my goal was just to maintain is that I figured it would be nearly impossible to actually build muscle without access to a gym or gym equipment that won’t fit in my apartment. But if building muscle is relatively straightforward with just a pullup bar and a set of kettlebells, that absolutely changes things.

        If you don’t mind, I have a couple follow up questions. First – are there any adjustable dumbbells you’d recommend? I don’t mind splurging on those if they’re going to be significantly more effective than getting a couple kettlebells. But if the difference is relatively minor, I think kettlebells will suffice until the gym reopens.

        Also, do you have any suggestions for workout routines for this type of minimal home gym? I know you mentioned you’d be going into more detail in the next article, so it sounds like you might be addressing that soon.

        Thanks again man! I really appreciate all the info.

        • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 12:15 pm

          My pleasure, Robert! Yeah, you can absolutely build muscle without access to a gym. Hell, you can even build muscle without any equipment whatsoever. It’s easier for some muscle groups than others, but now would be a great time to focus on your back and biceps with the chin-up bar, your chest and shoulders with push-us, your abs with hanging leg raises and crunches. If you decide to get kettlebells/dumbbells, it becomes even easier, and you’ll have a better time bulking up other muscles as well.

          There are advantages to adjustable dumbbells, yeah. You can increase the load in small increments allowing you to lift in narrower rep ranges. That’s not needed to build muscle—progressively increasing rep ranges and training volume works, too—but it can make things a bit easier. Another advantage to dumbbells is that you can do lifts like dumbbell curls and wrist curls without the grips twisting in your hands. For arm training in general, I’d lean towards dumbbells. But the differences are indeed minor, and to be honest, I prefer kettlebells to all but the highest-end adjustable dumbbells (like BowFlex or IronMaster). Even cheap kettlebells are sturdy and feel nice in the hands, and they’re really comfortable for the compound movements: goblet squats, front squats, overhead presses, Romanian deadlifts, loaded carries, and so on.

          When I had to train at home for a while, I got a couple of kettlebells, really enjoyed it, and made some good progress. Mind you, you could also make good progress with resistance bands, or even with bodyweight. Making progress doesn’t hinge on you getting free weights. It just makes it easier and more enjoyable. 

          • Robert on April 11, 2020 at 3:32 pm

            Awesome, thanks Shane! I did a quick search for adjustable dumbbells and unfortunately it looks like most of the good brands are sold out. All I could find were some cheap looking off-brand ones that were still selling for over $500 for a pair. So I’ll probably stick with kettlebells until the gym reopens.

            Also, does B2B have any plans to release a workout plan for guys with minimalist home gyms? It looks like no gyms will be open for at least a few more weeks so it would be great to make sure we’re getting the best use out of limited equipment. I know you guys are busy so I completely get it if you don’t have time but I’m sure a lot of your members would really appreciate it. Thanks again!

        • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 3:58 pm

          Yeah, man. I hear ya. That’s important. We’ve already got a minimalist home gym plan up in the member community. Check out the “How to Train During a Pandemic” thread. And much more is to come 🙂

          If that thread doesn’t answer all of your questions, just make a post there and Marco, SteveM, and I can help you figure it out 🙂

          • Robert on April 12, 2020 at 3:08 am

            I read through the thread you suggested and it seems like a great place to start. Thanks for pointing me in the right direction. I’m looking forward to seeing what else you guys come up with for home gym routines!

  6. Kevin on April 10, 2020 at 9:35 pm

    This seems like a one sided argument. You can definitely build muscle with bands and work a lot of muscles that dumbbells wouldn’t touch with the negative and extra resistance at the top. Resistance bands will get you more ripped but maybe not as much mass as lifting for 1-5 reps with heavy weight. Seems like more research is needed especially for specific goals.

    • Shane Duquette on April 10, 2020 at 10:01 pm

      Hey Kevin, I’m sorry if I didn’t communicate this properly, but I totally agree that people can build muscle with resistance bands. They’ve got a funny strength curve, and I think free weights are an easier way to build muscle, but resistance bands are still viable, and if you prefer them, sweet.

      I’m confused by your second point. What are the muscles that you can’t build with free weights? And why would that be the case?

      I wasn’t trying to argue that heavy strength training was better. Doing sets of 1–5 reps isn’t very good for building muscle, either. As with resistance bands, it’s certainly possible to build muscle that way, but it’s much harder. If I recall correctly, Schoenfeld compared a group doing 7 sets of 3 reps against a group doing 3 sets of 10 reps. They both built the same amount of muscle, but the 10-rep group finished their workouts in fifteen minutes feeling fresh, whereas the 3-rep group took 90 minutes to finish their workouts and felt wrecked by the end of the study. So if I had to guess, I suspect that the guy doing sets of 10 reps with resistance bands would be able to build muscle more easily than the guy doing 3-rep sets with a heavy barbell. (Not that 10 reps is a magic number or anything, but it’s within that 6–20 range that makes it easiest to build muscle for most lifts.)

      If I understand what you’re saying, getting ripped (lean?) versus gaining mass (bulking?) is mainly a difference in calorie intake. To lose fat, eat a low enough amount of calories that you lose weight. To build muscle, eat enough calories that you gain weight. Both could be done with either resistance bands or free weights. Or am I misunderstanding you?

      • Kevin on April 10, 2020 at 10:23 pm

        Thanks for clarifying. In opinion resistance bands requires more of a dynamic strength squeeze as opposed to free weights. Gravity also has to be taken into account where you use stabilizing muscles and contestant tension with bands where free weights there is not much negative benefit unless purposeful in working that. Thanks for clarifying and bringing knowledge to my ignorance

        • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 12:16 pm

          My pleasure, Kevin! It’s true that resistance bands give more of a squeeze at the top of the lift. That can be good for getting a muscle pump, and that’s not without value. However, free weights can do that, too, but they also allow us to lift heavier weights with a more challenging overall range of motion, which should, in theory, stimulate at least a bit more muscle growth. I don’t want to overstate these differences, though. We won’t know for sure until more research comes out.

          Gravity plays a bigger role when we’re lifting free weights. With bands, we’re mostly pushing against the tension of the band. With free weights, we’re mainly lifting against gravity. I’m not sure this matters for muscle growth aside from free weights having a more natural strength curve, though.

          Building stabilizer muscle strength is definitely a nice feature of bands, but again, the same is true with free weights. Furthermore, since free weights are more similar to what we lift in day-to-day life, especially considering the strength curve, I’d expect them to translate to better general strength. Again, though, I’m not sure how big that effect would be. It may not matter.

  7. Bruno gattuso on April 10, 2020 at 10:05 pm

    I’m confused,why is it that the inventors of bodylastics and TA2 have proven that you can build a great body with using just resistance bands? Also Jim Stoppani who’s well respected in the science of bodybuilding over the years is a strong proponent of using resistance bands only to build serious muscle.

    • Kevin on April 10, 2020 at 10:27 pm

      I agree with this. To me bands are just as beneficial however not as sexy as the free weights in the gym. Bands got a bad rap somewhere as being less beneficial without the science. However now we have an article addressing the science which I believe has flaws in interpreting gravity and tension. Hmmmmm

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 9:46 am

      I think it’s clear why people who invented a particular product might be interesting in showing the benefits of their product. Not that there’s anything necessarily wrong with that, but it’s not an unbiased source of information. I’m not super familiar with Jim Stoppani, but he’s not one of the lead hypertrophy researchers. Again, not there’s anything wrong with that. However, Dr Brad Schoenfeld, the leading hypertrophy researcher in the field, has called Stoppani’s ads “charlatanism.”

  8. Justus on April 11, 2020 at 4:00 am

    This is such an eye opening Shane so thanks for the article.

    I have bought a resistance band but it’s taking forever to arrive but have resulted into doing 500 plus pushups a day and just mocking up some water bottles for the free weights.

    I intend to use the resistance bands for the time being as it’s the only alternative available for me. Thanks once again.

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 12:11 pm

      Hey Justus, that sounds like a great plan! I think resistance bands are a cheap and effective way to add some variety to your home workouts. Even if the strength curve isn’t as good as with free weights, they can still work quite well.

      Push-ups are about as good as it gets for building muscle, especially if you raise your hands up a bit (on a couple of books, say) to get an even bigger stretch on your chest at the bottom of the lift. If you keep up with that push-up routine, you should be able to make killer progress on your chest and shoulders. And adding in some resistance band work will only make your progress all the better 🙂

  9. Gavin on April 11, 2020 at 6:11 am

    This is very one sided, it’s simply they do different things in an ideal world you would incorporate both, which is what I do.
    The best advice is try it and see, bands aren’t that expensive so it’s worth the investment in my opinion.

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 11:17 am

      Hey Gavin, I’m sorry if the article seems one-sided. I tried to mention in every section that we can indeed build muscle resistance bands, just that it’s probably a bit easier with free weights. I wasn’t trying to make it sound like it’d be a bad idea to get resistance bands, or that if you prefer training with them, that it’s not a valid way of building muscle. You can absolutely build muscle with them, they’re cheap and portable, and some people prefer them.

      That’s a really interesting idea that you’re bringing up, too. Is it better to incorporate a few different lifts with different strength curves into our bulking routines? Would that yield more muscle growth than simply choosing lifts with better strength curves? For example, if we combine preacher curls, which work our biceps hardest in a stretched position, with resistance-band curls, which works our biceps hardest in a contracted position, will we stimulate extra muscle growth than doing just preacher curls? 

      One of the researchers who’s been looking into strength curves recently is Greg Nuckols. He’s been reviewing all the studies on strength curves and accommodating resistance for Monthly Applications in Strength Sport. I asked him about that idea and he said that we’d likely build more muscle by focusing only on the lifts that challenge our muscles in a stretched position. He’s guessing that the lifts that work our muscles in a contracted position just aren’t as effective for building muscle, even when combined with lifts that work the stretched position. 
      Now, that isn’t to say that using resistance bands for some lifts is a bad idea. That’s not to say that resistance bands aren’t a useful tool to have around, either. They can allow us to do a wider variety of lifts, and I’m sure there are some good uses for them even when free weights are available 🙂

  10. Regjoe on April 11, 2020 at 6:46 am

    Very informative and honest article.
    I’ve been training with resistance bands for last 8 years for personal reasons. Before that, I was well trained with free weights and weight machines at a gym( had been a gym gore for 15 yrs ). I lost much mass over the time I used bands only. I’ve used all kinds of training techniques but still lost muscle mass.
    Those band sellers who have videos on YouTube, if you watch them, mostly perform metabolic types of training. Yet they claim that builds ‘ extreme’ muscle. ( Watch bodylastics videos and Dave, the bandman videos). If the circuit training ( bandman’s training techniques most of the time ) and high rep ( we are talking 30-40 reps like in bodylastics videos) truly build ‘extreme’ muscles as they suggest, everyone would have huge mass on their bodies.
    The author nailed it on science part with resistance bands. Beginning of any movement has to be loaded to stimulate muscle. That’s where you feel most ‘ difficulty’ when you strength train. With bands, that part of any given movement is the easiest part. You make that part hard like many blind and inexperienced band supporters suggest, then you never can complete the movement as the resistance increases too much halfway through, hence effectively( or ineffectively in this context) removing the benefit of having the complete range of motion.
    Bands can provide excellent conditioning training. No doubt. As for muscle building, if you are beginner, you could get that beginner’ gain but after that, you will have load muscles from the beginning to the end in a movement.
    It never ceases to amaze me about how uninformed many are when they say that bands provide constant tension. Really?? Try to do a set of shoulder press with dumbbells and then do with bands. See which gives the feel of ‘ constant tension ‘.
    Don’t fall for the sales pitch and bad information circulating on internet about bands.
    It’s good if all you can use to get in shape. For muscle building, stick with something heavy. Heavy that is from the beginning to the end.

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 10:58 am

      Hey Regjoe, yeah, that’s a great way of putting it.

      You’re making a good point. It’s weird how as soon as people move away from free weights, they throw out all the principles of hypertrophy training. If we’re trying to build muscle, it doesn’t matter whether we’re training with barbells, dumbbells, or resistance bands, we still need to focus on gaining strength and work capacity in our muscles, not just on fitness, conditioning, and pump work. If our cardiovascular system is the limiting factor, then it’s our cardiovascular system that will see the most robust adaptations. And that’s not a bad thing. That’s great. But it’s not going to be as effective for building muscle.

      As far as gaining muscle with resistance bands goes, if you’ve built a lot of muscle over a long lifting career, it might be hard to maintain your size and strength with just bands. I’ve seen a number of the more advanced powerlifters and bodybuilders worrying about that if they can’t get back to the gym within the next couple of months. Even then, though, if all you have access to is bands and bodyweight training, that’s still so, so much better than doing nothing at all. Even if it’s hard to maintain peak size and strength, band training can still allow us to be muscular, strong, and healthy.

      Mind you, I think for a lot of us, we’d be able to maintain our muscle mass or even make progress with bands and bodyweight training, especially in some muscle groups, such as our chests and shoulders. Free weights would just make it easier.

    • Ron on April 12, 2020 at 6:47 am

      Bands don’t put on muscle the same way weights do.
      Show me one bodybuilder who built their physique through bands exclusively and I’ll eat my words but I won’t have to.
      Why, because no bodybuilder ever did.

      • Miggy on September 1, 2020 at 9:53 am

        Go to Undersun Fitness on Instagram he’ll prove your wrong.

        • Ron on September 2, 2020 at 8:03 am

          As per Doug Brignole: “Elastic bands are convenient, of course. They are light-weight and very portable, so they allow a person to do a type of resistance exercise wherever they happen to be. However, they are NOT ideal from the perspective of muscle development.

          Muscles have a “strength curve” which usually allows them to be stronger when they are elongated, and LESS strong when they are contracted (shortened). So, the ideal resistance curve of an exercise would accommodate the strength curve of the muscle. It would provide MORE resistance when the muscle is elongated, and LESS resistance when the muscle is contracted. Elastic bands do the opposite. They load the muscle less when the muscle is elongated (i.e. stronger), because the elastic band has not yet been stretched. Then, they load the muscle more as the muscle is shortened (i.e. weaker) because the band is increasing its length and tension.

          This is an unfortunate aspect of using elastic bands as the source of resistance. This “backward” resistance curve (regardless of angle) is less than optimally productive for building muscle, and is also LESS comfortable, to a degree. Using elastic bands tends to leave you wanting more resistance where you’re stronger (in the early phase of the range of motion), and wanting LESS resistance where you’re weaker (in the latter phase of the range of motion).

          Nevertheless, it’s important for us to understand the factors involved in evaluating the resistance curve of elastic bands, as they do represent one type of resistance exercise.”

          • Shane Duquette on September 8, 2020 at 9:58 am

            That’s correct, yes 🙂

        • Shane Duquette on September 8, 2020 at 9:35 am

          Hey Miggy, I disagree. This article is based on the latest research.

          Plus, James Grage of Undersun Fitness says that he built his muscle with dumbbells. Here’s a quote from the Undersun website: “The foundation for his success was built with a pair of dumbbells, that he got for Christmas at the young age of 15.”

          Finally, I’m not trying to saying that people can’t build muscle with resistance bands, just that free weights tend make it easier. If you see someone who has an impressive physique built with resistance bands, that doesn’t disprove the idea that free weights make it easier to build muscle. And even then, most muscular people tend to build their muscle with free weights anyway.

        • TD on November 2, 2020 at 12:15 pm

          Miggy, he was a traditional weightlifting bodybuilder long before he went to bands and began selling his own line of resistance bands.

  11. Tom on April 11, 2020 at 11:09 am

    I do not agree. I am a 48 year old ex powerlifter. I use bands incorporated with Bulgarian bags, Power ropes & sandbags. You do not need free weights to build muscle. Bands twice a week, Bulgarian bag weighted push-ups with ropes & sand bag cleans works just fine. 6 to 7 sets of Giant super sets one day. Power ropes 10 30 seconds to 1 minute waves or power slams & sandbag cleans. Chose a weight you can do 6 to 10 sets of 10.

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 11:13 am

      Hey Tom, thanks for the comment. I tried to make it clear that we can indeed build muscle with resistance bands. And I know that some people enjoy it, especially given how convenient it is. That doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily the best way to train for muscle hypertrophy, though. What is it that you disagree with?

    • Daud on April 11, 2020 at 11:18 am

      That’s similar to how I train: resistance bands; sandbags; kettlebell and bodyweight.
      I’m 50 this year. I ditched free weights when I took up grappling. I needed the body to work as a unit. I’d only use static lifts to work on a weak or injured area. Resistance bands emulate a person pulling against you which dead weights don’t.

      • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 12:13 pm

        Daud, that’s an interesting point about resistance bands being more similar to grappling. I hadn’t heard that. For what it’s worth, Dr Mike Israetel is big into martial arts, with his focus being on BJJ, if I recall correctly. He’s one of the guys saying that free weights are far more effective than resistance bands for building muscle. I haven’t heard him comment on how that transfers to grappling, though.

  12. JerryM on April 11, 2020 at 5:05 pm

    Great article, and exactly what I’ve been thinking about for weeks.
    Any thoughts on the door gyms that are just a more sophisticated band system, like Body by Jake’s Tower system?

    • Shane Duquette on April 12, 2020 at 9:15 pm

      Hey Jerry, yeah, okay, I just watched a video of someone going through one of the official workouts using the Body by Jake Tower System. The resistance band and pulley system would have the same strength curve as regular resistance bands, it’s just got a different way of anchoring the bands and adjusting the tension. It seems like more of a system for doing specific general fitness workouts, sort of like P90X or Insanity. I’d guess that the less sophisticated resistance bands would be easier to build muscle with.

  13. Tom on April 11, 2020 at 10:02 pm

    Resistance bands provide more resistance through the entire range of motion. This is not the same for free weights. I was a competitive raw bench pressure for years, don’t misunderstand, I loved throwing 300 plus pounds off my chest…Ego boost. But, I find because of the full range of tension resistance bands provide, I am still able to add muscle. At my age, it allows my joints to feel less pain & allows me to recover faster. Respectfully, Tom.

    • Shane Duquette on April 11, 2020 at 10:52 pm

      Hey Tom, that’s awesome! A 300-pound bench press is sweet! It’s great that you’re keeping up with resistance training as you get older, too. I’m not trying to say that we shouldn’t use resistance bands or anything. Some people like them and that’s awesome. The important thing is to exercise, you know?

      As a general rule, free weights have bell-shaped strength curves where the lifts are hardest in the middle. That’s true with the barbell curl, a deep squat, the bench press, the conventional deadlift. The lift is challenging at the bottom, hardest in the middle, easier at the top. That’s good for building muscle.

      With resistance bands, the lift is easiest at the bottom, hardest at the top. It’s not providing more resistance throughout the range of motion, it’s just providing more resistance at the top. But if we’re trying to build muscle, it’s better to have more of the resistance at the bottom.

      That’s not to say that resistance bands are bad or that we can’t build muscle with them. Just that the variable resistance is a disadvantage. I hope that makes sense.

  14. Ron on April 12, 2020 at 6:10 am

    Great great article however, does the question change when you consider using suspension training (TRX)?

    • Shane Duquette on April 12, 2020 at 9:29 am

      Hey Ron, yeah, great question!

      With free weights and bodyweight exercises, gravity is providing constant resistance, and so the strength curve is determined by our lever lengths (external moments), internal leverage (internal moments), and how stretched our muscles are (length-tension relationship). What makes resistance bands unique is that they add variable resistance into the mix, where the further the bands are stretched, the more force they exert. This almost always makes a lift disproportionately hard at the end of the range of motion, which isn’t ideal for gaining muscle size or strength. That’s the problem of variable resistance.

      With suspension training (like TRX), we’re lifting against gravity, and there’s no variable resistance. However, we can set up at various angles so that we aren’t just pulling straight up or down. That can change the strength curve, for sure, but it’s not always going to be making the lift hardest at the very end. In some cases, it might even improve the strength curve. For example, it’s possible to set up bodyweight rows with a TRX machine so that they’re easier at the end.

      For another example, doing push-ups with resistance bands shifts the emphasis away from the chest towards the triceps. But with a TRX suspension trainer, the chest would need to work extra hard to keep the handles from flying apart. It become more like a dumbbell bench press. And again, that can be an advantage.

      Mind you, I don’t have a lot of experience with TRX suspension trainers, and I don’t know how versatile they are. I’m not sure they’d be great for training the legs, say, or the shoulders, or for doing curls. They’re one of those tools that can be handy to have around, but you wouldn’t necessarily want to do an entire workout with them. (The same can be said of a chin-up bar.)

      If it were me, I’d still lean towards getting free weights first. But a suspension trainer is one of those tools where even if you have free weights and a chin-up bar, you might still use it for some lifts. (I’ve seen Marco use TRX suspensions trainers with clients either to progress them towards chin-ups or as a good horizontal row variation.)

  15. Barry on April 23, 2020 at 2:48 am

    Great article. As you said, you can build muscle with free weights, bodyweight, and yes bands. I use a combo and have had great results.
    I want to take issue with one of the main premises of your argument though: you claim much of muscle building comes when loading the stretch position. It is something i heard before and have always thought this sounded like “bro-science”.

    You reference this literature review:

    However, that review does not study “stretch” it studied partial versus full range of motion which is very different especially since “full range” itself is contested.

    Any thoughts?

    • Shane Duquette on April 23, 2020 at 8:58 am

      Hey Barry, thank you!

      I totally agree that it’s not about the range of motion, it’s at which point in the range of motion our muscles are most challenged—the strength curve.

      I suppose it does sound like bro science, yeah, but sometimes the methods bodybuilders use to help them build muscle become popular because they work. That’s where research can be most useful—to test ideas that appear to work in practice.

      In the section on variable resistance, we go over the results of this meta-analysis (a review of all relevant studies). It shows that challenging our muscles at longer (more stretched) lengths yields nearly three times as much muscle growth as challenging our muscles at shorter (more contracted) lengths.

      We also have a mechanistic explanation for why challenging our muscles at longer lengths is so effective for stimulating muscle growth. Muscle growth is stimulated via mechanical tension, and when our muscles are stretched, this adds extra passive tension. That means that when we challenge our muscles in a stretched position, overall mechanical tension on those muscles is higher, increasing the hypertrophy stimulus.

  16. Jan Zavrel on May 10, 2020 at 5:04 am

    Great article, but X3 bar is not weird. It works great! Don’t take my word for it. Check the FB group of other X3 bar owners. I had my doubts, but finally jump in and boy, what an experience. Combined with bodyweight, it’s the best of both worlds. The platform and the bar makes all the difference. It’s not as much about bands, it’s about clever variable resistance.

    • Shane Duquette on May 10, 2020 at 2:12 pm

      I’m glad you like it, Jan. That’s sweet 🙂

      Just to be clear, I’m not trying to say that people shouldn’t use it or that it’s bad or anything. I was just saying that the variable resistance from bands isn’t ideal for building muscle and the claims on their science page are incorrect. But if you love it, go for it. You can still make progress, improve your health, and build a rad physique 🙂

  17. john on July 1, 2020 at 12:01 am

    Are we talking about pure muscle mass increases, or are we taking into account mass and performance?

    • john on July 1, 2020 at 12:19 am

      I am a triathlete between 170 to 175 pounds. I do not do very much free weight training except during the winter. I mostly do resistance band and body weight exercises. Yet I a can out squat and bench a lot of bigger dudes. I think it depends on your goals.

    • Shane Duquette on July 6, 2020 at 11:20 am

      This article is about gaining muscle mass, but performance increases are better when challenging our muscles in a stretched position as well. For example, this meta-analysis found that working our muscles at longer muscle lengths was better for improving general strength and athletic performance. Resistance bands are easier at longer muscle lengths, harder at shorter muscle lengths, which is the opposite of what we want. So when training for performance, better to use free weights. And that’s what we see in practice, too. The vast majority of athletes train with free weights, cables, and machines rather than with resistance bands, even though resistance bands are cheaper and more convenient.

  18. John on July 6, 2020 at 11:31 am

    Thats what I figured. I was first wonder about the basis for the discussions. I was gathering most were talking about mass more than performance. Most studies with show that bands and free weights are equivalent or close to equivalent for performance. I will do free weights in the winter and mantanice phases. One can find free weight sets for not that much online then all you need is a bench. You can put together a small home work out set up for less than what most pay over time for there iphone. But people these days do not put value ion their health.

    • JerryM on July 6, 2020 at 7:33 pm

      @John : There are other considerations to not building a home gym than laziness or bad priorities. Some, like myself, have wood floors and downstairs neighbors, where a home gym that isn’t based on metal weights isn’t from inconvenience; it is a requirement. Resistance bands are one of the few options that are both compact and relatively noiseless. Plus, they are compact and mobile. E.g., I have a strap set I take on trips to workout in hotels when they don’t have a gym, where I can get access to free weights.

      Shane already mentioned a better alternative to bands or a band-like gym set, which is bodyweight exercises (which I believe includes non-stretching straps). I can personally attest that I built more muscle faster using bodyweight exercises than my resistance band door gym set, but that’s one data point.
      Certainly, exercising at all is better than nothing, even if the exercising is with bands, but the topic is about which type of exercising is most beneficial to adding strength and mass.

  19. Dave S on July 13, 2020 at 3:32 pm


    This was an extremely well writing article for many reasons. Well written, easy to understand and supported with basic research that has withstood the test of training time. At no time did I feel defensive, just very engaged.

    Obviously I am a Resistance Band Training guy who has committed his career to helping others training with large heavy-duty bands which I feel far outweighs the tubular based devices. However, RBT is never been about training just for muscle hypertrophy but rather a way to achieve strength training longevity.

    I was an ectomorph who trained very hard with weights to gain size in his 20s and early 30s. However, I found around age 35, the more I tried to train with free weights, heavy or light, the more my body continued to break down, leaving me unable to train or significantly modifying my workouts regularly. What I have found in RBT is that by alternating up both forms of training (free weights with resistance band training), it allowed me and my followers the ability to continue training for strength and metabolic conditioning without feeling beat up. As a result, we could train more frequently and at high intensity which are keys to muscle growth as well. I have never said the RBT System is the best for building muscle but it is definitely better than getting injured and not training at all. Plus feeling and moving good becomes a much bigger training goal with age as does having strength training longevity.

    After reading this article I feel you would appreciate that goal which was another reason I enjoyed it.

    Thank you for sharing this article. Very excited an RBT follower pasted it on to me to see. I will continue to follow your site and look forward to learning more.

    Dave S

    • Shane Duquette on July 13, 2020 at 5:10 pm

      Hey Dave, thank you!

      I couldn’t agree more. A big part of resistance training, whether with free weights, resistance bands, machines, or bodyweight training, is finding exercises that suit our bodies, don’t beat up our joints, and that we can find some joy in 🙂

  20. Scott on October 7, 2020 at 4:39 pm

    Old guy here. I’ve been using a chest expander and kettlebells (meels and bulgarian bags) for the last 5 years or so. It started out because I was traveling on sales calls and hotel gyms have bupkis for weights. Bands and handstand push ups for upper body; bridges and free squats for the rest.

    Bands are great for maintenance, and for biceps training, I think it actually is better than dumbells. One of the things about them; except for stuff like curls, you’re not doing useful exercises that look much like barbell exercises. The “money” exercise for pushing motion is the back press; overhead down pull for pull exercise. Check out Fatman’s guide to cable training. Many of the greats; Reg Park, Chuck Sipes, swore by ’em. Of course, they used weights and gymnastics too.

  21. James on November 15, 2020 at 4:23 am

    Hi guys. Big fan of your writing; I think this is the first article I’ve found on this site that I didn’t find well-argued. Two main reasons come to mind:

    Reason the first: The central technical claim as to why resistance bands are inferior to free weights (or whatever else) seems to be that the variable resistance curve of bands causes resistance to be lower where it’s most important for stimulating muscle growth, e.g. as you wrote here:

    > Resistance bands have variable resistance. As we stretch resistance bands further, the load gets progressively heavier. The beginning is fairly easy and then the band only truly challenges our muscles at the end. We’ve turned a full biceps curl into a partial biceps curl. And, worse, it’s the most important part of the range of motion that’s rendered most useless.

    or here:

    > After all, if the lift is easy at the bottom of the range of motion, then we aren’t developing as much mobility or strength there.

    So, *is it actually categorically true that “the beginning is fairly easy and then the band only truly challenges our muscles at the end” when you do resistance band exercises*? Do you really think it’s just generally not possible to configure your body and a resistance band together in such a way that you’re near-enough-to-optimally challenged through the full range of motion of the exercise? If you go on YouTube and look at any of the more detailed how-to videos on resistance band training, they usually emphasize that the band needs to already be under significant tension at the start of the range of motion. And, in my limited experience with resistance bands, there does seem to be a “sweet spot” of starting tension where the exercise is already difficult at the start of the range of motion, and then more difficult at the end of the range of motion, but not so difficult at the end that I can’t achieve the full range of motion.

    I guess what I’d like to see is much more empirical firepower behind this claim:

    >What’s insanely cool is that most free weight lifts are like the biceps curl, and they have their resistance curves at least partially flattened by our natural strength curves.

    i.e. for all the most popular lifts, what do we (ideally) *measure* the resistance curve for free weights vs. competently-used resistance bands to be, and how does that compare to the *measured* strength curve of the primary muscle used in that exercise?

    Reason the second: If you go back to those popular resistance band how-to videos on YouTube, you’ll be able to find a large handful of comments from people who claim to be highly experienced lifters who’ve started using resistance bands and also claim that resistance bands kick their ass appropriately (which also aligns with my experience). If what you write in this article is accurate, then I think it has the very interesting implication that people who know what they’re doing with free weights can “fool themselves” into having the exact same subjective experiences they associate with time-efficient muscle-building by using resistance bands — almost failing after 3 sets of 10 reps, immediate fatigue, the “pump”, DOMS, all of it — despite those exercises not building muscle nearly as effectively.

    I think this implied claim is very bold, and would probably have fascinating implications of its own if true. What do you make of it?

    • Shane Duquette on November 15, 2020 at 1:17 pm

      Hey James, thank you! I appreciate that. And thank you for your thoughts, too.

      Okay so the first point is about the strength curve. We want the lifts to be heavier when our muscles are stretched, lighter when our muscles are contracted. But resistance bands do the opposite of that. As we pull the resistance band tighter, our muscles contract, and the resistance band provides more resistance. So that’s the opposite strength curve of what we want for building muscle. No matter how much tension you put on the band at the beginning, it’s still going to get harder as you contract your muscles, stretching the band further. The strength curve is still backwards.

      For example, look at one of the best muscle-building lifts: the barbell bench press. If you arch your back and use a moderate-to-wide grip, most people find that their upper arms are about horizontal to the ground at the bottom of the lift, meaning our moment arms are the longest, meaning the weight is the heaviest. That’s also when our pecs are under a deep stretch, which makes them stronger. So at that point where the weight is heaviest, our muscle is strongest, allowing us to put it under maximal tension, and thus stimulate more muscle growth. Then, as we lift the weight up, the moment arms get shorter, giving us better leverage, and allowing us to finish the lift even as our pecs get weaker. That’s a great strength curve, and it explains why the bench press is so massively popular, so great for bulking up our chest muscles. But resistance bands are the opposite of that.

      Your second point is that resistance bands are still challenging, can still give us a pump, and can still make us sore. And you’re right. We don’t REALLY care about those things, we just care about how much muscle we build and how much strength we gain. Fatigue, pump, and soreness are just proxies. That’s true. Those proxies are often pretty good, but they don’t always account for everything. They’re just proxies.

      I’m not saying that resistance bands can’t be challenging or hard. And they can absolutely give you a good pump—they’re great for that. What I’m saying is that they aren’t great for maximizing mechanical tension, which is the main driver of muscle growth, because they aren’t good at maximally challenging our muscles in a deep stretch.

      That doesn’t mean they’re bad or useless. Just not as good as free weights for building muscle.

      And to be clear, I’m not saying this as an absolute immutable fact. Just that based on the evidence we have right now, this seems to be the case. Resistance bands still haven’t been studied very well. And they aren’t very popular among serious lifters, either, making things even harder. I suspect the reason they haven’t been studied and they aren’t very popular is because they aren’t as good, and I’ve written about why that is, but I could be wrong.

      My opinion isn’t an outlier opinion, though. If you look at most hypertrophy experts, they recommend free weights, think machines can be pretty good, find bodyweight training difficult but workable, and then don’t think very highly of resistance bands because of the funky strength curves. That’s how strength athletes train, it’s how bodybuilders train. And keep in mind that there’s very little bias here. These people aren’t selling lifting equipment or anything. But then most people who disagree, talking about the benefits of resistance bands, seem to sell resistance bands.

      So overall, I’m very skeptical that resistance bands are as good as free weights for building muscle, and even more skeptical about the claims that they’re better than free weights. But I also don’t doubt that you can build muscle with them, so I don’t mean to discourage you or anything. You can build muscle that way. I just don’t think they’re totally ideal. But not all of our training needs to be ideal. It’s totally cool to use resistance bands.

      • James on November 15, 2020 at 3:54 pm

        Thanks for the reply. I don’t think you’re really getting at my central issue with point 1; *by how much* does the resistance curve increase through the range of motion with competently-used resistance bands, and *how much* does that curve actually matter for muscle growth when you compare it with the resistance curve for free weights? The answer to the first is obviously “more than nothing”, but it’s not at all clear to me that the answer to the second is therefore “enough that anyone should care”.

        On that note, I took a look at the study you referred to in an attempt to answer this question, at — I don’t think it’s appropriate to generalize the effect size from this study solely looking at isometric training to full isotonic training. (Presumably you do, so I’d be curious to hear why.) I’m doubtful that the sign of the effect would *reverse* for most exercises if you attempted to measure the same thing with isotonic exercises, as some resistance band boosters claim, but it’s totally plausible IMO that the analogous effect size for isotonic exercises could be, say, an order of magnitude smaller or more, given that almost all of the time under tension with isotonic exercise is somewhere in between full extension and full contraction.

        > If you look at most hypertrophy experts, they recommend free weights, think machines can be pretty good, find bodyweight training difficult but workable, and then don’t think very highly of resistance bands because of the funky strength curves.

        Can you share some examples aside from Marco? In a few cursory Google searches, I was able to find some high-profile athletes and their trainers (skin in the game and all that) who like resistance bands, but nothing coming down in a well-supported way on the other side aside from this article — in fact I found this one while literally searching for “are resistance bands as good as weights”. (Not that the results of my Googling mean much, of course people are going to be more likely to bother making the somewhat interesting claim that resistance bands are highly effective than the already-conventional-wisdom claim that free weights are the only real option for anyone who’s serious about growing muscle.)

        And, you know, I’d hope that we can strive to arrive at the truth regardless of what the summarized conventional wisdom is among those who’ve made their way into social positions of supposed expertise, and therefore have a clear incentive to not rock the boat too much with respect to conventional wisdom among their *clients*, i.e., emotionally-invested non-experts. 🙂

        > And keep in mind that there’s very little bias here. These people aren’t selling lifting equipment or anything. But then most people who disagree, talking about the benefits of resistance bands, seem to sell resistance bands.

        You sell a $197 *ebook*, far more than what anyone would spend on resistance bands themselves, on how to build muscle using free weights. Come on now Shane.

        • Shane Duquette on November 16, 2020 at 9:36 am

          Yep, that’s true James. I’m not trying to say how much worse resistance bands are. You’re totally right. I’m not sure. Small changes in the strength curve don’t seem to have a huge impact on muscle growth. With resistance bands, it’s the worst type of resistance curve, so it’s possible that it’s a larger change that results in a big different in muscle growth, but I’m not sure. Hopefully new research gets published comparing actual rates of muscle growth and I can update the article accordingly.

          The isometric study is good to look at because, like you said, we get to see an extreme case and how it affects muscle growth. But if we look at subtler changes on lifts done through a full range of motion, such as hamstring curls done seated (hamstrings stretched) vs lying down (hamstrings at shorter muscle lengths), we see the same effect, and with meaningful differences in peak muscle activation (study). But again, it would be great to have more research. I’ll keep this article updated as it comes out.

          I’d say the top hypertrophy researcher right now is Dr Brad Schoenfeld, and when giving recommendations for how to train, he recommends free weights, but makes sure to add that exercise machines can be good, too. Resistance bands don’t make that list. Now, with that said, when gyms closed and he set up his home gym, he got some resistance bands along with his adjustable dumbbells and chin-up bar. But he points out that it isn’t ideal. He’s making the best of it, you know? And that’s what I’d recommend, too. Making the best of what you have access to.

          Another leading hypertrophy researcher is Dr Eric Helms. He recommends using “a dumbbell, barbell, or exercise machine as desired” to build the chest, using “any variation of free weight squat” to bulk up the quads, and so on. All of his exercise recommendations for building muscle talk about how dumbbells, barbells, or exercise are all great ways to build muscle. He’s not explicitly saying that resistance bands are worse or anything, they just aren’t being mentioned as an ideal way to build muscle. (It’s not like he’s forgetting about them, though. He mentions accommodating resistance—adding light bands to heavy barbell exercises—and says there’s little evidence to suggest that it helps.)

          Another of the big hypertrophy experts is Dr Mike Israetel, and he actively recommends avoiding resistance bands. He says if you need to train at home and don’t have much of a budget, just get some dumbbells, even if they aren’t quite the right weight and you need to lift in a wider variety of rep ranges.

          If you know of a hypertrophy researcher or expert who thinks otherwise, I can look into it. Plus, I’m not saying that nobody recommends or uses resistance bands, but rather that free weights and exercise machines dominate bodybuilding, strength training, and athletics training. I’m sure there are examples of people who do otherwise, but they’re surely outliers. Like you say, it’s possible that resistance bands are as good as free weights and it’s just that nobody has realized yet. But I’m very skeptical of that.

          Again, though, I’m not saying you can’t or shouldn’t use them. They still work. You can still build a great body with them.

          “You sell a $197 *ebook*, far more than what anyone would spend on resistance bands themselves, on how to build muscle using free weights. Come on now Shane.”

          No, no. You’re assuming that we’re stuck selling a free-weight program, but we aren’t. We aren’t “the free weight” guys, we’re the “help skinny guys build muscle” guys. We update and expand upon the workout program all the time. We can make it into whatever is best. If we thought we could get people similar results with resistance bands, we’d just add a resistance-band workout routine to our program.

          We already have a barbell version, dumbbell version, and, when gyms closed, we developed a bodyweight workout routine. I’d love to develop a resistance-band routine. That would make it easier to help skinny guys build muscle, exercise, and improve their health. I’d love that. I’m just not confident that it would work as well. We might still do it, but right now I say use barbells as a default, dumbbells as the next-best option, exercise machines after that, and bodyweight training after that. I know that all of those methods can work amazingly well. Resistance bands, I’m not so sure. But hopefully I’m wrong.

          I think this whole idea of people ONLY advocating barbells or keto or intermittent fasting or whatever it is, it locks people into biases, and it doesn’t serve the ultimate purpose of helping people accomplish their muscle-building and fat loss goals. That’s not what we’re about at all. We just try do recommend whatever is best, whatever it is.

          I’m totally openminded on this.

          • Shane Duquette on December 1, 2020 at 7:47 pm

            I asked the hypertrophy researcher Eric Helms, PhD, too. He responded, “Not a lot of research on the topic, but I would agree with your general recommendations of free weights and machines for hypertrophy, with bands and bodyweight working in a pinch. So no, you’re not wrong on that, in my opinion.”

            As for why that is, he explained, “If you think about doing a band curl, you’re standing on the band, holding it in both hands. At the bottom, right before you start the rep, there is less tension in the band than at the top when you’ve elongated it, providing more resistance as the muscle shortens and less when it’s at a longer muscle length.”

            I appreciate you questioning me on this, James. You’re making me question my assumptions and triple check all of the points I made, and I think that’s a very good thing.

        • Shane Duquette on December 1, 2020 at 8:29 am

          Another study came out, following up with that seated vs lying hamstring curl research. This new study measured muscle growth from challenging the hamstrings at shorter and longer muscle lengths, finding that exercises that challenge our hamstrings at a greater length produce proportionally more muscle growth.

          What’s neat is that the different areas of our hamstrings are stretched to different degrees by bending at the hips. The areas that got the greatest stretch saw the greatest growth. The areas that were unaffected didn’t see a difference in muscle growth. And the areas that were shortened by bending at the hips saw less growth.

          So this gives us a really good indication that challenging our muscles at longer lengths helps us build muscle faster.

          • James on December 2, 2020 at 12:45 am

            In that case, I’m tentatively willing to buy that resistance closer to the start of the ROM does indeed matter more for gainz than resistance closer to the end of the ROM, in general. (I suspect this argument might “prove too much” — if tension near full extension in particular is *that* overwhelmingly important, why hasn’t anyone decided you can save some time in the gym and get the same results by only doing the first 50% of the ROM of every lift? — but whatever.) I’m still not convinced that means that resistance bands therefore “might not be better than bodyweight” for hypertrophy as in claimed in the article (“might”, ok, but ridiculous IMO), or are strictly inferior to free weights for all hypertrophy-directed exercises one might want to do, or are inferior *enough* to free weights for those hypertrophy-directed exercises where they are technically inferior that anyone but literal professional bodybuilders should care, assuming you’re using the bands thoughtfully.

            As you well know, our muscles have an increasing strength curve for some movements; assuming that you want to be as close to the sticking point as possible throughout the full range of motion, with a preference for being close to the sticking point earlier in the range of motion rather than later when you must choose, then resistance bands should compensate for that strength curve (to some unspecified extent that’s totally dependent on the exercise you’re doing and the fiddly details of individual technique) and (if used well) be preferable to free weights for those movements, right? e.g. it doesn’t really prove anything, but I do ~feel~ more challenged through the full range of motion when I squat with resistance bands compared to with a barbell, since the resistance is increasing along with the force I can output (even though there’s already a lot of resistance at the start of the ROM since the band is already under significant tension at that point), and if that subjective experience is accurate then it’s hard to imagine that wouldn’t be at all beneficial, even if it probably doesn’t matter much.

            But more importantly, even for the movements where our strength curve isn’t strictly increasing and that might naively disfavor resistance bands, I’m still quite unconvinced that the magnitude of the effect would matter to anyone but the most obsessive or literally-professional of bodybuilders as long as you put some thought into having “enough” resistance at the start of the ROM. For an extreme example, when I do resistance band neck curls, the band is very stretched at the start of the range of motion (~200% stretch ratio, maybe — hard to actually measure by myself) and, since the range of motion is so small, barely more stretched at the end (surely no more than an additional +20% to the stretch ratio); assuming the band has a linear relationship between elongation and tension, that’s close enough to a flat resistance curve that I’d be utterly spoiled to care about the fact that it’s not truly flat, IMO, and the mechanical details resulting from my form, the height of my anchor point, etc. would probably matter more for “optimizing” the movement.

            Obviously the resistance is lowest when the muscles you’re working are extended when you use resistance bands, we don’t need three people with graduate degrees to tell us that, and in principle that matters more-than-not-at-all for some movements, but as a layman who wants to build muscle reasonably quickly and has some hands-on appreciation for the magnitude of the forces involved here, *should I actually care*?

            e.g. concretely, suppose I’m doing 3 sets of 10 of some hypothetical movement with a roughly flat strength curve, using a resistance band, where I’m 85% of the way to my sticking point near full extension and 95% of the way to my sticking point near full contraction. Should I expect to put on muscle… 99% as quickly as I would if this hypothetical movement had a perfectly flat resistance curve when using a free weight and I were 90% of the way to the sticking point through the full ROM? Or, 90% as quickly? Something as low as 75% effectiveness would be surprising, right? (It would be to me!) Or maybe that “85%-to-95%” is optimistic compared to many actual non-hypothetical movements, and for some important lifts it’s just not practical to appropriately flatten the resistance curve when you’re using a resistance band; I’d be willing to believe that, but, *which movements* is that true for, then? I, and many other people, already own free weights as well as resistance bands; if I want to munchkin the hell out of my gains, and I delude myself into thinking I’ve already addressed every other factor that would matter more, which tool should I be using for which particular jobs, given that it beggars belief that resistance bands are strictly inferior to free weights for *every possible strength training exercise*?

            And if even the expertest of experts don’t know the answer to these types of question with any numeric confidence, that’s fine, but in that case why say (in the article if not in the comments) “resistance bands are definitely much less effective for hypertrophy than free weights, just do bodyweight work if it comes to that, rofl” rather than “we don’t really know for sure, free weights would be the conservative choice if you have access to them since we know for sure that works well, but resistance bands are probably almost as good, so you can do that too if you’re willing to take the risk that it *turns out* they’re surprisingly and dramatically worse than free weights *after the question is studied more*”?

          • Shane Duquette on December 2, 2020 at 7:33 am

            Your first question is a good one. Why don’t people just do the first 50% of the range of motion, training at longer muscle lengths instead of at shorter lengths? And they do. For example, if you watch high-level bodybuilders train, such as Jay Cutler (as shown here), you’ll see that they often get a deep stretch at the bottom, lift the weight partway up, and then lower it back down. And if you look at powerlifters, you’ll see that they do the bench press with an arch, shifting the range of motion towards longer muscle lengths on their chests. There’s a big stretch on the chest at the bottom, but it reduces how contracted the chest gets at the end of the range of motion. Plus, with something like a barbell bench press, even at the very top of the movement, our hands are still a few feet apart. We’re not getting a full contraction of the chest. You’d need to do a cable crossover for that. So the bench press itself is a lift that works our chests only at longer muscle lengths.

            Now, that doesn’t mean that training with a shorter range of motion is the answer. After all, at different parts of the range of motion, different muscles come into play.If you cut the lockout out of your bench press, you’ll be working your triceps much less hard. So as a default, a fuller range of motion is still often a good idea. Using the example of the triceps, though, when people are trying to bulk them up, what they often do are skullcrushers or overhead triceps extensions. By having your arms out in front or overhead, it stretches your triceps, meaning that the entire range of motion is shifted to longer muscle lengths. The whole lift is done under stretch, avoiding ever fully contracting the triceps.

            The most proven example, though, is the hamstring curl. If we bend at the hips, it puts the hamstrings under greater stretch throughout the whole movement, meaning that we miss out on training them at shorter lengths. And we stimulate quite a bit more muscle growth than if we do lying hamstring curls, where we’re training them at shorter muscle lengths. The range of motion is incomplete in both cases, as it is in almost every exercise, but the part of the range of motion that works our muscles at longer muscle lengths is better.

            So I think you’re right. If we focus on training our muscles in a deep stretch, we can build more muscle in less time.

            Regarding the three people with graduate degrees, you asked me what the top hypertrophy experts thought, saying you were having trouble finding their opinions online. I asked the top experts and gave you their answers. And their answer was that free weights and exercise machines were probably better.

            As for how much better free weights are, it’s hard to say for sure, but I think it might be by a meaningful amount. If you’re having trouble stimulating muscle growth, finding better exercises can be the difference between 0 and 1. It can be the difference between a plateau and progress. And that can be a big deal. You might have an arm circumference of, say, 15 inches, and it’s hard to make them bigger. By choosing better exercises, you provoke more muscle growth, and all of a sudden they start growing again.

            That isn’t to say you can’t build muscle with resistance bands. But I do think it might be substantially easier to build muscle with free weights or exercise machines. And with bodyweight exercises, obviously that’s a last resort, but even so, many of them are quite good. Deficit push-ups, chin-ups, dips, hanging leg raises, and so on are all great exercises. We recommend them to people who are training at fully equipped gyms, with access to every tool. There aren’t any resistance band exercises that I know of that are better than their free weight, bodyweight, or exercise machine alternatives. They may very well exist, I just don’t know of them.

            With neck training, I have a Neck Flex harness that came with a resistance band kit for neck training. I tried a few workouts with it, but I found that I preferred training with free weights. So I hung weight plates from the chain instead. I know some people who like using some band training for their necks, though, and that’s perfectly fine. And your logic is good. If the range of motion is very small, the variable resistance won’t interfere with the strength curve very much.

            Is it possible that the average person wouldn’t notice the difference between resistance bands and free weights? I doubt that. I suspect working out with free weights would allow you to get more muscle stimulation with less time spent training, that you’d be less likely to run into muscle and strength plateaus, and that you’d indeed build muscle noticeably faster. But that’s a guess. It could be that the difference is small.

            I don’t mean to hate on resistance bands. People who like them can use them. I’m just trying to write about the pros and cons so that people can decide for themselves. There’s a whole section in the article talking about how we can build muscle no matter what we have access to.

          • Shane Duquette on December 2, 2020 at 7:40 am

            I should note that in the hamstring curl study, bending the hips challenged three heads of the hamstrings under a greater stretch: the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus. They saw more than twice as much muscle growth than the group doing the hamstring curls without bending their hips, even though the total range of motion was the same in both groups.

            So training under a greater stretch stimulated more than double the muscle growth. It can be a huge factor. I don’t think it’s something that only professionals care about. I think these are differences in results that almost everyone trying to build muscle would care about.

            We work with a lot of people who are frustrated by a lack of progress. I try to optimize the details so that they can build muscle faster and more reliably. I really care about these things. I realize not everyone does.

          • James on December 2, 2020 at 3:03 pm

            In case it wasn’t already clear, I don’t find vague assertions all that convincing, even if they’re accompanied with a reference to one or two narrow maybe-directionally-relevant studies. I was hoping these experts might show their work in a way that you haven’t yet to back up the extremely bold claim that the hypertrophy efficacy difference between free weights and resistance bands is unequivocally and universally “large”.

          • Shane Duquette on December 2, 2020 at 4:02 pm

            I hear ya. That’s fair.

            I’m not claiming that the hypertrophy difference between free weights and resistance bands is necessarily large. I’m just saying that most evidence points to resistance bands being worse for building muscle, and seemingly all of the top experts agree. Everyone—myself included—is being careful not to overstate their position because, as you’ve correctly pointed out, there hasn’t been much direct research on this yet. If you want to wait until more research is out, that makes total sense 🙂

        • Shane Duquette on December 1, 2020 at 12:51 pm

          Okay, I reached out to Greg Nuckols, MA, who runs the research review Monthly Applications in Strength Sport (MASS). He’s perhaps the most respected reviewer of hypertrophy research. I asked him if free weights and exercise machines were better than resistance bands for building muscle, and he told me:

          “Yeah, I do think, in general, bands are probably slightly worse for growth since it’s a lot harder to load a muscle at long muscle lengths.”

  22. Jordan on November 30, 2020 at 6:20 pm


    This still comes off as pretty biased. A lot of the assumptions are just plain wrong, such as implying that only free weights will contribute to building bone density. Any load on our frame will do that, whether it’s with bands or weights.

    The assumption that there isn’t a challenge at the beginning of a movement on the bands – all you have to do is “choke up” on the band a little. Problem solved in 1/2 sec.

    Research has also repeatedly shown that instability helps build muscle faster, which is something you seem to make out as a wash, when it clearly favors bands.

    Just speaking anecdotally… at 40 y.o., having spent 10 years in the Navy (half of that with USMC units), wrestling in my youth, and working a lot of hard manual labor jobs, NEVER in my life have I built muscle as quickly than the last 3 months. I don’t worry about my diet much and take no supplements, not even protein. I’ve put on as much muscle in three months as I did the previous 20 years with traditional free weights, taking creatine, BCAAs, etc. I mostly just do the P90X “Shoulders and Arms” and “Chest and Back” workouts alternately, every 2-3 days as quickly as I can (no breaks; I’ve memorized the workouts so I move on when Tony is talking) with just some bands. I do the ~46 minutes in ~28 minutes now. Nothing crazy, and by far the best results I’ve ever seen in my life. I’ve had an 8.8% increase in body mass in the this time. The only other exercise I get is walking up a few flights of stairs to my apartment when I come home from the market. 🙂

    I’d definitely recommend not just looking at theoreticals and trying it out for yourself. I think its too easy to get confirmation bias and see what you want to see in the data.

    • Shane Duquette on December 1, 2020 at 8:44 am

      Hey Jordan, congratulations on the gains, man! That’s awesome!

      I’m not trying to imply that only free weights improve bone density. I think you’re right on that. But if we look at the heaviest loads we put on our bones, we’re looking at lifts like heavy barbell squats and deadlifts. It’s rare to see that amount of loading coming from resistance bands, right? Or am I missing something?

      I think the disadvantage with resistance bands comes from the strength curve. If you choke up on the bands, the lift will still get harder as you go through the range of motion. And that’s the opposite of what we want for muscle growth. It would be better if the lift were harder at the bottom, where our muscles are stronger, and easier at the top, where our muscles are weaker. And if we’re being limited by how strong our muscles are at the top, then we aren’t maximally challenging our muscles in a stretched position.

      My understanding is that stability allows us to work our prime movers harder. But I could be wrong on this. What research are you referring to? I’d be happy to take a look at it.

      As for having tried them, I have. I don’t like it. The resistance curve feels backwards. I don’t feel that deep ripping feeling that I get with the best free weights lifts. And they feel too wobbly and finicky. But that’s not really the point. Just because a lift feels bad to me doesn’t mean that it won’t stimulate as much muscle growth.

      For what I try personally, I’ve been leaning in the other direction. I’ve been trying to choose lifts that challenge my muscles in a deeper stretch with a better strength curve. I feel like I’m getting more stimulation and greater strength gains out of fewer sets, and this year I’ve added 50 pounds to my bench press. I could try experimenting with what I think would make my training worse, but again, I’m not sure how valuable that would be.

      But I guess the idea would be to, say, train one arm with resistance bands, the other with free weights, and then compare how they grow relative to one another? I mean, I could, but even then, I’m not sure the conclusion would be all that strong. I’d rather see a properly constructed study testing that.

  23. James on December 4, 2020 at 8:00 am

    Taking all this in, what if you used bands to reverse the resistance properties of different exercises. For example, in a squat, you hang bands from above, and they pull the squat bar up. Then the resistance is lower at the bottom and greater at the top, even compared to the free weight case. To make up for the help of the bands, just put more weight on the bar to compensate.

    • Shane Duquette on December 4, 2020 at 9:24 am

      That’s correct, yeah. If you check out the accommodating resistance section, you’ll see that there are some theoretical benefits to adding chains or resistance bands to some of the big barbell lifts. You can do them banded (making them harder at the top) or reverse banded (making them easier at the bottom). The effect is the same in both cases: the bottom gets easier compared to the top.

      The thing to keep in mind here is that we want to make sure that the deepest part of the lift is still the hardest. That’s where we want our sticking point to be. So we don’t want to REVERSE the resistance curve, we just want to flatten it a little bit. That’s why with accommodating resistance, you want most of the resistance coming from the weights, only a little bit coming from the bands.

      If you add bands or chains to a squat, for example, then you can keep it hard at the bottom of the range of motion while SLIGHTLY increasing the challenge at the top, flattening the strength curve and perhaps stimulating more muscle growth. It hasn’t been proven yet, but it could indeed offer an advantage.

      The thing is, we stimulate more muscle growth at the bottom of the range of motion, so it’s unclear how much benefit we’d gain from increasing tension at the top. That’s why, I think, the research hasn’t shown a clear benefit to accommodating resistance yet. But it might. It does make sense. It’s a logical way of training.

  24. Patrick on February 22, 2021 at 9:25 am

    I like the article and agree mostly, but find bands very useful as a compliment to shoulder training, simply because shoulders injure easily. I can’t do dumbbell side raises right now due to a tendon injury but I can do band side raises. There’s something about them that lets me go to failure on side delts without pain. Likewise rear delt work with bands is useful (Reverse flies, pull aparts) and has helped my posture immensely. Triceps are another they seem useful for as a finish after dumbbells to build strength around the elbow as that has been a weakness for me.

    I prefer dumbbells for most training but see bands as essential for the things they do very well.

    • Shane Duquette on February 22, 2021 at 11:50 am

      Hey Patrick,

      I hear ya. I think bands can be a good complement for free weight training. If you’re already getting the advantages of dumbbell (or barbell) training, nothing wrong with using bands for some isolation exercises, especially if it’s easier on your joints 🙂

  25. James Bond on March 21, 2021 at 9:20 pm

    Well, I disagree…

    Resistance bands are a different type of strength training.

    Are free weights better for building muscle size, if that’s your training goal? Clearly.

    Are bands better for building lean muscle, avoiding injury and perhaps even athletic performance? Clearly.

    So it depends upon your goals.

    • Shane Duquette on March 24, 2021 at 4:43 pm

      I’m not sure I understand your point. Why would resistance bands be better for building muscle or avoiding fat gain? And why is that clear?

  26. James Bond on March 24, 2021 at 5:26 pm

    Well, it’s clear to me because I’ve used both. And currently use both in my training program.

    One way in which they are better is the way the exercises are performed. With bands, gravity is not necessary which places the body in more natural alignment.
    For example, I’m a mountain biker. Excessive muscle strength and size from lifting free weights, the way most free weighters lift, does not benefit me. It hinders me.
    Now I can reduce the amount of weight. But I wont change the posture of the exercise. Because gravity is required.

    The strongest men in the world are not considered lean. And generally speaking wouldn’t last long on a mountain bike or in a boxing ring.

    • Shane Duquette on March 25, 2021 at 9:12 am

      If you prefer bands, that’s totally cool. I think people should train how they like.

      I’d argue that we’ve evolved to lift objects against gravity. When we present our bodies with that stimulus, they grow stronger so that we’re better able to lift even heavier things against gravity. Our bodies are very well suited for it, too. This idea of using resistance bands for resistance training is a very new thing, less natural (for whatever that’s worth—maybe nothing).

      You’re right that having a muscular upper body would make you needlessly heavier, reducing your mountain biking performance. That’s not a case of resistance bands being better for building lean muscle, though, it’s just a case of your sport not benefitting from bigger upper-body muscles. If someone DID want to build bigger muscles, though, weights seem like the easiest and most efficient way to do that.

      The strongest men in the world carry a lot of body fat, yeah. That’s not a result of how they train, though, it’s a result of how they eat. To gain muscle, it helps to eat in a calorie surplus, which means gaining weight. Since their sports often benefit from having more fat as well as muscle—think of a sumo wrestler or powerlifter—they just keep eating a ton of food to gain a mix of both muscle and fat. Plus, to get to very high degrees of muscularity, it seems that being at a higher body-fat percentage can help. So again, another reason to eat a ton of food.

      If we look at the most muscular AND LEANEST people in the world, though—bodybuilders—then we still see people who build their big muscles by lifting weights.

  27. Emma on July 13, 2021 at 9:54 am

    Thank you for that article!

    I was wondering why working with bands felt so awkward and straining but still didn’t give me any burn.

    I guess they’re a typical “girly” fitness item since it’s been featured in a lot of “booty growth” videos, and my postpartum fitness coach handed them out via mail to all of the moms in our online course—which is great in a pandemic obviously. They’re also easy to store if you don’t want your apartment to look like a gym, and they come in happy colours. Some women also aren’t looking to build muscle mass and go for a leaner look, I guess.

    Anyway, my experience tells me free weights, machines, and even bodyweight exercises are just so much more effective, at least for me. And I feel that very often bands tend to suddenly snap away or wobble at the wrong moments, and that resistance/weight is generally harder to calibrate with a band. Thin ones can be unconformable and cut into your skin, too. I’ve had bruises from bands.

    This tendency to be less easy to control is is what makes using the band feel awkward to me. And I suspect that they’re also more prone to causing injury in beginners, especially when they’re the cheap, thin kind.

    • Shane Duquette on July 13, 2021 at 1:18 pm

      Our pleasure, Emma! So glad you liked it!

      I think you’re right about all of that. Resistance bands are definitely handy and convenient, and I can see how they’d be less intimidating, especially if someone isn’t looking to build a ton of muscle. With that said, even if someone wanted to gain 5 pounds of muscle instead of 20, I’d still recommend weights. They could do shorter workouts, easier workouts, or accomplish their goals much faster. I’m not sure why choosing a less effective method becomes more appealing. I’ve definitely heard that argument, though.

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