Illustration of a powerlifter doing strength training.

Is Strength Training Good for Building Muscle?

Is strength training good for building muscle? Some of the most popular programs that skinny guys use to bulk up, such as StrongLifts 5×5 and Starting Strength, are designed for gaining strength. But what if we’re trying to become bigger and stronger? Are strength training programs good for building muscle?

If we look at a recent study comparing low-rep training strength training against moderate-rep hypertrophy training, we see that hypertrophy training stimulates more than twice as much muscle growth per set. Does that show that hypertrophy training is better for building muscle?

There’s new research coming out showing that doing metabolic training in higher rep ranges increases muscle growth by increasing the amount of fuel in our muscles—sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. Lower-rep training is thought to stimulate muscle growth via myofibrillar hypertrophy. Does that mean that strength training builds harder, denser muscles?

Are the big three powerlifting lifts—the back squat, the bench press, and the deadlift—the best lifts for building muscle? And how crucial are isolation lifts when bulking up?

Illustration of a geared powerlifter doing a barbell back squat in a squat suit and knee wraps.

What is Strength Training? 

There are a couple of different definitions of strength training:

  1. Strength training (aka lifting): Resistance training that uses progressive overload in order to build bigger, stronger muscles. This definition includes all types of lifting.
  2. Strength training (aka heavy lifting): Heavy lifting that’s done in low rep ranges (1–5 reps per set) in order to improve your 1-rep max strength on the big compound barbell lifts.

I’m going to use the second definition. That’s the type of strength training that’s often said to be best for gaining muscle size, so that’s what we’ll look into.

Here are some popular examples of strength training programs:

  • Starting Strength: 5 reps per exercise, full-body workouts
  • StrongLifts 5×5: 5 reps per exercise, full-body workouts
  • Bigger, Leaner, Stronger: 4–6 reps per exercise, push/pull/legs split

Strength training programs often focus on the squat, deadlift, and bench press, but you can apply the principles to almost any lift. For example, it’s common to use strength training to gain strength at the overhead press and the barbell row. Most of them are fairly minimalist, though, with just 3–4 exercises per workout.

Strength training causes several structural adaptations, as most types of lifting do: your muscles will grow bigger, your tendons will get stronger, your bones will become denser. Many great adaptations take place. However, the main goal of strength training is to teach your neural system how to contract all of your muscle fibres at once for a single all-out rep, which has been nicknamed neural gains (study). This makes you stronger in a powerlifting sense.

So although strength training does stimulate some muscle growth, it’s best for making you stronger for your size.

What is Hypertrophy Training?

Hypertrophy training is simply training designed to make your muscles bigger (muscle hypertrophy). Some people use the term “bodybuilding” to mean the same thing. However, bodybuilding usually involves a focus on aesthetics and leanness as well as muscle size. Hypertrophy training is indeed what bodybuilders use to gain muscle size, but it can be used for all manner of goals:

  • An athlete might do hypertrophy training to gain more muscle mass for his sport.
  • A powerlifter might alternate between hypertrophy training (to get bigger) and strength training (to get stronger for his size).
  • A skinny guy might bulk up with hypertrophy training because he wants to get bigger, stronger, and healthier.
  • And of course, yeah, hypertrophy is also the best way to improve your appearance.
Illustration of a man doing the barbell overhead press.

Hypertrophy training usually involves doing 6–12 reps per set, which causes your muscle fibres to adapt by becoming bigger. It’s quite common for hypertrophy programs to dip as low as 4 reps per set and fly as high as 20 reps per set, but the main emphasis tends to be in the “moderate” 6–12 rep range.

Hypertrophy training isn’t tied to any specific lifts, but the big compound lifts tend to be the best for gaining overall muscle mass: squats, deadlifts, bench press, chin-ups, rows, push presses, and so on. In addition to the big compound lifts, hypertrophy programs will often have smaller isolation lifts, such as bicep curls and lateral raises.

A bigger muscle is a stronger one, so hypertrophy training will absolutely make you stronger. However, it’s not going to teach you how to contract all of your muscle fibres in unison for a single all-out repetition. It’s not specialized for lifting 1-rep maxes. That’s why powerlifters will do hypertrophy training to gain size, then switch to strength training a couple of months before their competition to specialize their muscles for lifting heavy singles.

Hypertrophy training is best for making you bigger and stronger.

Which Rep Range is Best for Building Muscle?

Illustration of a skinny guy building muscle and becoming muscular (before/after).

Low-rep strength training is designed to help people gain maximal strength, whereas moderate-rep hypertrophy training is designed to help people gain as much muscle size as possible. The bigger a muscle gets, the stronger it becomes, so there’s quite a lot of overlap between these two styles of training. Even so, lower reps tend to make us stronger for our size, whereas moderate reps tend to make us bigger and stronger.

For the first example, in an 8-week study by Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, his researchers split the participants into two groups:

  • The strength training group did 2–4 reps per set. They saw a 30% increase in squat 1-rep max, with a 4% increase in quad size.
  • Hypertrophy training group did 8–12 reps per set. They saw a 17% increase in squat 1-rep max,  with a 10% increase in quad size.
Study results comparing strength training and bodybuilding for gaining muscle size

Both groups did the same exercises and the same number of sets, but the strength training group improved their 1-rep max by twice as much, whereas the hypertrophy group gained twice as much muscle size.

How was the strength training group able to gain so much strength without a proportional increase in muscle size? They were becoming more efficient with the muscle mass they already had. They were getting better at contracting more muscle fibres at once for an all-out single. They were making neural gains.

Why did the hypertrophy group gain so much muscle size without gaining strength? The hypertrophy gained more than twice as much muscle in their quads. However, because they weren’t lifting close to their 1-rep max, they never practiced contracting all of their muscle fibres simultaneously for a single all-out repetition. Their bigger muscles had more strength potential, they just hadn’t had as much practise lifting heavy.

Now, to be fair, there are other studies showing that strength training produces more muscle growth than hypertrophy training. For example, a two-week study conducted by Mangine et al found the opposite results:

  • The strength training group did 3–5 reps per set, rested 3 minutes between sets, and gained twice as much arm size.
  • The hypertrophy training group did 10–12 reps per set and rested 1 minute between sets, and only got half the arm growth.

This is the problem with using just a single study to prove a point. Sometimes studies produce outlier results, and sometimes it’s hard to explain the divergent findings. Sometimes it’s hard to even tell which study is the outlier.

The next question is: what could explain the differences in the results of these two studies? I think it could be the rest time between sets. Rest times shorter than two minutes reduce muscle growth (study), so the difference in muscle growth could have less do with the reps per set, more to do with the shorter rest times.

Fortunately, we have a systematic review of fourteen studies comparing how different rep ranges affect muscle growth. It found that strength training stimulates about half as much muscle growth as hypertrophy training per set, with 6–20 reps being ideal for gaining muscle size.

We also have Dr Stuart Phillips’ research showing that hypertrophy training stimulates more muscle protein synthesis than strength training. This explains how over time, hypertrophy training would yield more muscle growth than strength training.

Greg Nuckols, MA, also reviewed all of the research comparing strength training and hypertrophy training. He found that hypertrophy training produces 10–15% more muscle growth than strength training, which still gives hypertrophy training the advantage, albeit a much smaller one. He suspects that sets ranging from 4–40 reps stimulate similar amounts of muscle growth. He still recommends focusing on hypertrophy training for gaining muscle size, as well as recommending that powerlifters spend more of time training like bodybuilders. However, this has more to do with hypertrophy training allowing people to handle more hard work per workout and per week, as we’ll discuss below.

Most recently, a 2020 study compared groups doing 4-rep, 8-rep and 12-rep sets. The 4-rep group did seven sets, the 8-rep group did four sets, and the 12-rep group did three sets. All groups saw equal muscle growth. Now, it’s unclear how much muscle growth the 4-rep and 8-rep groups would have gotten if they had just done three sets—it’s possible that doing more then three sets simply creates diminishing returns—but this study still shows that doing just three 12-rep sets produces as much muscle growth as doing seven 4-rep sets.

Why isn’t Strength Training Best for Gaining Size?

The next question is why hypertrophy training produces more muscle growth than strength training. The main thing that causes muscles to grow is mechanical tension, so you’d think that loading up a muscle with the heaviest loads would stimulate the most growth. However, that’s not what we see.

Illustration of a man doing a conventional barbell deadlift.

One likely explanation is that hypertrophy training is done with a higher volume. That doesn’t necessarily mean doing more sets, it just means that more total weight will be lifted per workout. For example, if your 1-rep max on the bench press is 225 pounds:

  • Strength training: 185 pounds × 5 reps × 5 sets = 4625 pounds lifted
  • Hypertrophy training: 160 pounds × 10 reps × 5 sets = 8000 pounds lifted

This means that in the above studies comparing strength and hypertrophy training, where the total number of sets was equated, the hypertrophy group was lifting with a substantially greater volume. Perhaps simply lifting more weight per workout is what’s most important.

The benefits of lifting with a higher volume go beyond the obvious, too. By increasing our lifting volume, we’ll not only adapt by building bigger muscles, but we’ll also adapt by improving our work capacity. Our muscles will develop the capacity to lift a greater overall poundage per week. This is an incredibly important aspect of our fitness. Not only is it practical, but it’s also healthy, and it even improves our ability to build muscle. (This is a topic for another article, though. In the meantime, our article about cardio might help.)

To directly test the hypothesis that the extra lifting volume was responsible for the extra muscle growth, Schoenfeld conducted a study where he matched the volume between the strength and hypertrophy groups:

  • The strength training group did 7 sets of 3 repetitions. It took them 70 minutes to finish their workouts, and by the end of the study, they were complaining of sore joints and overall fatigue. 2 participants dropped out due to joint pain.
  • The hypertrophy training group did 3 sets of 10 repetitions. It took them 17 minutes to finish their workouts, they were eager to do more lifting, and they finished the study feeling fresh.
Illustration of a man doing a Zercher squat

Both groups gained the same amount of muscle size, suggesting that volume was indeed the main driver of muscle growth. However, it’s a bit of a false comparison. Schoenfeld remarked that the hypertrophy training group could easily have thrown in some biceps curls, lateral raises, and some other isolation exercises to boost muscle growth without needing much extra time or imposing much extra stress on their joints.

If both groups were given 70 minutes to train each workout, the hypertrophy group would have been able to achieve a much higher lifting volume, would have netted a ton of extra benefits, and would have gained much more muscle mass.

This is likely why hypertrophy programs are able to produce so much more muscle growth than strength training programs. It’s not just that hypertrophy training seems to produce slightly more growth per set, it’s that it allows people to do more lifting in less time and while accumulating less fatigue.

This advice lines up with how most hypertrophy training programs are structured. You start with the heaviest compound lifts (chin-ups, squats, deadlifts). Then progress to moderately heavy compound lifts (overhead presses, bench presses, rows). And then finish the workouts with some lighter accessory lifts for your abs, your arms, your shoulders, your chest, and your upper back.

Sarcoplasmic Versus Myofibrillar Hypertrophy

The next thing to consider is whether strength training causes a different kind of muscle growth. For example, it’s often claimed that strength training stimulates myofibrillar hypertrophy (growth in the part of the muscle fibre that can produce force), which creates stronger muscles. Hypertrophy training, on the other hand, is said to cause sarcoplasmic hypertrophy (more fuel in the muscle fibres), which builds muscles with greater work capacity. Is that true?

Illustration of a man doing a dumbbell biceps curl.

There’s not a lot of research looking into sarcoplasmic versus myofibrillar hypertrophy, but it seems logical that training in moderate rep ranges would require more anaerobic fuel, and thus hypertrophy training would stimulate sarcoplasmic muscle growth. There’s a brand new study that supports this idea.

Conversely, if you’re training your muscles to be strong for a single repetition, then what you need is more force production, and so strength training would stimulate myofibrillar muscle growth. There’s a study that supports this idea as well.

However, this study found that well-trained bodybuilders and powerlifters both have proportionally high sarcoplasmic hypertrophy when compared to smaller, weaker lifters (meta-analysis).

This could be because most successful powerlifters will use hypertrophy training to bulk up close to their genetic potential (to get bigger and stronger). Then, once they’ve gained as much muscle as their frame can support, they’ll focus more exclusively on strength training (to become bigger for their size). So even with well-trained powerlifters, it could still be the hypertrophy training that’s causing the sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.

It also seems like strength and hypertrophy training may both cause equal amounts of myofibrillar hypertrophy, but then hypertrophy adds extra sarcoplasmic hypertrophy on top of that, which is where all of the extra muscle growth comes from. This lines up with the research showing that higher training volumes stimulate more muscle growth. Higher training volumes, whether coming from strength or hypertrophy training, require more fuel, and so they stimulate that extra sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.

Again, this all lines up with the idea that strength training making guys bigger for their size, whereas hypertrophy training making people bigger and stronger.

Does Strength Training Build Denser Muscles?

Both strength training and hypertrophy training seem to produce the same amount of myofibrillar hypertrophy. It’s just that hypertrophy training seems to add in extra sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.

Judging by the names, you’d think that myofibrils were a hard structural addition, whereas the sarcoplasm was the fluid part. That would lend credence to the idea that myofibrillar hypertrophy creates harder muscles. It’s not a totally crazy idea.

It’s not quite that simple, though. Whether you’re adding myofibrils or sarcoplasm, most of the extra muscle mass is coming from added water. And that extra mass is going inside your muscle fibres. In either case, your muscle fibres are getting bigger and that size is coming primarily from the added fluid.

When you pack more water into your muscle fibres along with the new tissue, they look bigger and harder and denser. They also function better.

Is there a reason to think that a muscle with proportionally more sarcoplasm is going to look or feel any different? No. Mind you, there’s no research about it, either. It seems like the idea was invented to market a certain strength training program and then got spread around, never being based on anything.

Both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle growth is perfectly functional. In either case, the extra fluid is there for good reason.

Fast-Twitch Versus Slow-Twitch Muscle Growth

Up until recently, many researchers speculated that heavier strength training would do a better job of bulking up our fast-twitch muscle fibres, whereas higher-rep bodybuilding would do a better job of bulking up our slow-twitch muscle fibres.

However, a 2020 study conducted by Dr Schoenfeld found that whether we train with low, moderate, or high-rep sets, it doesn’t have much of an impact on how much muscle we build or in which muscle fibre type gets that growth.

So, as the research currently stands, it seems like we can bulk up our bigger fast-twitch muscle fibres just as well with moderate and high-rep training. There’s a fairly good explanation for this, too. Mechanical tension is the main driver of muscle growth in both our fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibres, and so we can build muscle either by increasing the magnitude or duration of the tension. If we lift heavier weights for fewer reps, the magnitude is higher but the duration is lower, and vice versa.

This explanation also hints at why very-low-rep sets don’t produce much muscle growth per set—because the slightly higher magnitude of the mechanical tension is dwarfed by the much higher duration of higher-rep sets.

Is Strength Training More Functional?

Finally, there’s the idea that strength training makes guys small but strong, whereas bodybuilding makes guys big but weak. This implies that if you care about more than simply gaining muscle size, strength training is the better approach. Is this true?

Illustration of a man doing a barbell front squat.

The first thing to point out is that a bigger muscle is a stronger one. For example, this study shows that bench press strength is directly correlated with the amount of muscle someone has in their chest, arms, and shoulders. There’s no way for a muscle to get bigger without it getting stronger and more functional.

Some guys are stronger than others because their proportions or muscle insertions give them better leverage. For example, a guy who’s built like a gorilla will be great at the deadlift but poor at the bench press. Conversely, a guy who’s built like a crocodile will be terrible at the deadlift but great at the bench press. But that has nothing to do with training styles or muscle size, just genetics.

The reason bodybuilding can make guys big but weak has to do with exercise selection. For example, let’s say that the leg press is a popular bodybuilding exercise, whereas the back squat is a popular strength training exercise. Both exercises will build bigger and stronger leg muscles, but only the squat will build up the spinal erectors.

This means that the bodybuilder will have big strong leg muscles, but because he lacks size and strength in his spinal erectors, he won’t be able to carry heavy things.

Of course, if the bodybuilder trained with different exercises, that problem would disappear.

Besides, if we’re talking about strength training versus hypertrophy training, then we’re not talking about exercise selection, we’re just talking about rep ranges and training volume. In this case, we’d be comparing:

  • Strength training: squatting for 5 sets of 3 repetitions
  • Hypertrophy training: squatting for 4 sets of 8 repetitions

In this case, both guys will be training their legs along with the hundreds of supporting muscles, including their spinal erectors. Both guys will have fully capable bodies, but the hypertrophy training will yield more muscle size and better strength endurance, whereas the strength training will yield more neural gains and a stronger 1-rep max.

If you want a strong and functional body, whether you’re doing strength or hypertrophy training, it’s best to focus on doing the big compound lifts that develop strength from head to toe:

This doesn’t mean that smaller exercises are less functional, though. For example, a barbell curl is a great exercise for building bigger, stronger, and more capable elbow flexors (biceps, brachialis, brachioradialis) as well as building up stabilizer strength in your upper back. Even smaller lifts make us more capable, they just don’t train as many muscle groups at once.

The Big Three Powerlifting Lifts Aren’t Ideal for Bulking

Powerlifting isn’t designed to help people get bigger and stronger, it’s a competition to see who can lift the most weight for a single repetition on three arbitrary lifts. That’s not a knock against powerlifting, it’s just that powerlifting is too busy winning powerlifting competitions to care about building bigger biceps or broader shoulders.

Illustration of the barbell bench press

Now, to be clear, the powerlifting lifts aren’t bad for building muscle. In fact, they have a number of advantages:

  • They challenge our muscles in a stretched position, which is great for stimulating muscle growth. The squat challenges our quads in a stretched position, the bench press challenges our chests and shoulders in a stretched position, and the deadlift challenges our glutes and hamstrings in a stretched position.
  • They engage a lot of overall muscle mass, making them quite efficient. Of all the lifts, the squat and deadlift stimulate growth in the most overall muscle mass, making them great bulking lifts.

Even so, there are a few reasons why powerlifting is bad for bulking:

  • Lifting technique is centred around lifting more weight, not building a better physique. For example, powerlifters choose a wide-stance low-bar barbell back squat not because it’s better for developing their physique, but because it allows them to load the barbell heavier. Better to pick a squat variation that develops more muscle size and strength.
  • Range of motion is arbitrary. Some people can squat deep, others can’t. There are a variety of reasons for this, ranging from technique to strength to anatomy. In powerlifting, though, guys who can squat deep are incentivized to cut their range of motion short, missing out on the benefits of going deeper. Worse, the guys who can’t squat deep still need to hit depth, so they have to force it. Better to use a range of motion that suits you.
  • The Big Three lifts themselves are arbitrary. The squat, deadlift, and bench press weren’t chosen as the powerlifting lifts because they were the best lifts for developing overall size and strength, they were chosen for the sake of the sport—because they were good for testing 1-rep maxes with precisely defined rules. For an idea of how arbitrary the lifts are, compare them against the lifts in a strongman competition. The two strength sports define strength with entirely different lifts.
  • The rep ranges are too low for hypertrophy. powerlifters measures strength in terms of how much weight they can lift for a single repetition. And in order to develop that specialized 1-rep max strength, they need to spend a lot of time lifting in very low rep ranges (strength training). Lifting in low rep ranges will yield some muscle growth, sure, but it’s by no means ideal for building muscle. For most of us, it’s better to spend more of our time lifting in moderate rep ranges.
  • There’s too little upper-body development. I’ll need to write a whole separate article about this, but the idea of building an aesthetic physique largely hinges on developing the type of strength that helped us survive as we evolved. It’s the type of strength that allows us to wrestle, fight, and wield weapons. You could certainly argue that we’ve evolved past needing that kind of strength, but that doesn’t change the fact that it’s the kind of strength that women find the most attractive and that other men consider the most impressive. (Oddly enough, leg size is largely irrelevant to aesthetics.)
  • The Big Three lifts don’t bulk up our abs. Yes, the squat and deadlift will bulk up the transverse abdominis muscle, which is a corset-like muscle that helps to keep the core locked doing while doing compound lifts. However, when most of us think of our “abs,” we’re thinking of our rectus abdominis muscles—the 6-pack ab muscles. Squats and deadlift don’t stimulate those ab muscles. So if you have skinny abs that you’re trying to bulk up, you’ll need lifts that actually train your abs.

Powerlifters are absolutely brilliant at developing killer strength, it’s just not quite the kind of strength that will help us become bigger and stronger overall. It’s also not ideal for avoiding injuries, improving our appearance, or improving our general health.

Does This Mean That We Should Never Lift Heavy?

If your goal is to gain muscle size, definitely prioritize hypertrophy training. It will allow you to build muscle more quickly, more leanly, and more easily. However, that doesn’t mean you should only be doing hypertrophy training.

Illustration of sumo barbell deadlift

When Brad Schoenfeld, a leading hypertrophy expert, published his study showing that hypertrophy training was better for gaining muscle size, he wrote:

The study indicates that the best approach to building muscle is to perform a combination of heavy and moderately heavy loads. The ‘hypertrophy range’ is applicable from the standpoint that it allows the performance of a greater amount of volume without overtaxing the body’s resources.

What’s interesting is that even if your main goal is to gain strength, a mixed approach still seems to be best. When it comes to gaining strength, Greg Nuckols, a leading strength expert, writes:

If you focus on growth, the strength will take care of itself, provided you train with heavy loads occasionally, especially leading up to [powerlifting] meets. If you focus purely on heavy strength work while neglecting the volume necessary to maximize hypertrophy, you’re limiting yourself in the long run. The bulk of your time in the gym should be focused on growth, at least until you’re nearing your muscular potential.

So even though you’ll probably benefit from spending, say, 2/3 of your time lifting in the hypertrophy range, that still leaves 1/3 of your time for lifting heavier (and lighter). That way you’ll still be prioritizing muscle growth, but you’ll also be getting some of the benefits of lifting in other rep ranges.

Moreover, due to a phenomenon called the repeated bout effect (RBE), muscles grow best when you vary the stimulus. As you adapt to a specific style of training, your muscles will gradually grow more and more resistant to it, and your results will gradually slow. By adding in some heavier and lighter training, you’ll be able to ward off those plateaus.

Instead of doing a 5×5 bench press routine month after month, try some sets of 8, 10, and 12. By that same token, you’ll probably want to use a variety of different lifts for your chest, switching between them over time.

Key Takeaways

Illustration of a man flexing flaming biceps.

Strength training is good for gaining muscle when compared against many other types of exercise, such as Olympic weightlifting, bodyweight circuits, and CrossFit. When strength training is compared to hypertrophy training, though, it isn’t nearly as good for gaining muscle size. There are a few reasons for that:

  • The most efficient rep range for building muscle is around 6–20 reps, with anywhere from 4–40 reps being effective. Strength training prioritizes the very low end of that range, which isn’t all that great for building muscle.
  • The big three powerlifting lifts—the squat, the bench press, and the deadlift—are great lifts, but there are others that deserve equal attention.
  • If we’re training for muscle size, we don’t want to lift like powerlifters. For example, front squats are often better than back squats, shallower arches tend to be better when benching, and we want to lower the weight more slowly when deadlifting.
  • Isolation lifts are incredibly powerful for gaining muscle size. Without them, our arms will usually lag behind (and sometimes other muscles, such as our chests).
  • Some muscle groups aren’t trained at all with strength training, such as our necks and biceps. Our forearms aren’t trained very well either, especially because grip strength doesn’t do much to increase the size of our forearms.
  • Both sarcoplasmic hypertrophy and myofibrillar hypertrophy are functional, useful adaptations, and there’s no reason to believe that getting more of one kind of hypertrophy than the other would change the way our muscles look or feel.

If your main goal is to gain muscle size, hypertrophy training is quite a bit better for that specific goal. And of course it is—that’s what it’s designed for.

Shane Duquette is the founder of Outlift, Bony to Beastly, and Bony to Bombshell, each with millions of readers. He's a Certified Conditioning Coach (CCC), has gained seventy pounds, and has over a decade of experience helping more than ten thousand naturally thin people build muscle. He also has a degree in fine arts, but those are inversely correlated with muscle growth.

Marco Walker-Ng is the founder and strength coach of Outlift, Bony to Beastly, and Bony to Bombshell. He's a certified trainer (PTS) and nutrition coach (PN) with a Bachelor's degree in Health Sciences (BHSc) from the University of Ottawa. He has over 15 years of experience helping people gain muscle and strength, with clients including college, professional, and Olympic athletes.

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  1. […] our article about whether strength training is good for gaining muscle size, if want to dig deeper into the science of […]

  2. b0vver on August 1, 2019 at 12:40 pm

    Hello Shane,

    Thank you for your articles.
    Just one question, i do 5 reps for every compound lift, so if i understood your sayin, if i add 1 more rep per set (3×6), there will be more muscle grow due to extra sarcoplasm ?

    In the meantime, thank you so much for your attention and participation.

    • Shane Duquette on August 1, 2019 at 1:26 pm

      Hey, man. That’s the right idea, yeah.

      Now, just to be clear, I bet it’s more of a gradual difference as you add reps to your sets. In that systematic review, yeah, 1–5 reps only produced half as much muscle growth as 6–20 reps, but if we’re talking about 5 vs 6 reps per set, I bet the difference will be smaller. After all, 5 and 6-rep sets both place very similar demands on our muscles. 6 reps will probably produce a little more muscle growth though, yeah.

      Will that extra muscle growth come from sarcoplasmic hypertrophy? I think that’s likely. The research there is very young, though, so it’s hard to say for sure. And again, we’d see a bigger difference if we compared 3-rep sets against 20-rep sets.

  3. Nate on August 1, 2019 at 12:53 pm

    Wow Shane, thank you so much for continually putting out great content that REALLY matters. You’re legit my number one source for separating fact from fiction. To the entire Bony To Beastly crew, y’all are awesome.

  4. Sam on August 1, 2019 at 1:39 pm

    This is literally life changing for me. Ive been worrying about this since i started lifting weights! I want to pack on muscle and THEN get strong later. But ive been told “do strength training so you can lift heavier in hypertrophy sets” so ive always done strength weeks evwry other week. But then id spend a whole week doing less volume for a given strength week. It felt slightly counter productive, getting strong for my size seems silly when im not actually big yet. And im convinced that the lack of volume in my strength weeks meant i put on more fat from eating bulking calories constantly (even during strength weeks) i probably should of ate less for those weeks.
    Which meant more time in the year spent cutting of course. I felt like I’ve yoyo’d abit with my gains for the past year after my initial year of easy gains. Even though ive been training and eating a tonne!

    This article has confirmed to me that i can indeed just train using hypertrophy until Im closer to my max size. And then i can develop strength from there.
    I think because my volume was all over the place on different weeks, my body wasnt really adapting to increase the weekly volume. So im going to pay close attention to the volume now too.

    Thanks Shane!!!!


    • Shane Duquette on August 1, 2019 at 2:44 pm

      So glad I could help, Sam!

      And yeah, you’re exactly right. It makes much more sense to become big and strong using hypertrophy training, and then to use strength training to make the neural gains that will help you lift a big 1-rep max.

      The idea that strength training allows you to lift heavier in your hypertrophy sets is a bit flawed. Strength training will teach your muscles how to lift more maximally—contracting all of your muscle fibres at once for an all-out rep. But that won’t necessarily help you lift heavier in your hypertrophy sets. If you wanted to be able to lift more weight in your hypertrophy sets, better to do hypertrophy training, using progressive overload in those moderate rep ranges. After all, that’s what hypertrophy training is for—to get bigger and stronger in those moderate rep ranges.

      • Ben on August 3, 2019 at 4:20 pm

        Wouldn’t getting a higher weight in the 1-5 rep ranges result in getting a higher weight in 6-12 rep ranges and vice versa?

        • Shane Duquette on August 3, 2019 at 7:20 pm

          Yah, and I see how my above answer is poorly worded.

          Building muscle will make you stronger in all rep ranges, absolutely. If you get stronger in lower rep ranges, the higher rep ranges will feel lighter. If you get stronger in higher rep ranges, the extra muscle mass will improve your 1-rep max.

          Does that mean you should do both hypertrophy and strength training, though? That depends.

          Let’s say your goal is to get stronger in the 1–5 rep range. You’ll definitely want to do some strength training. You need those neural gains. However, you’ll probably also want to spend some time lifting in higher rep ranges in order to gain muscle size. That’s why powerlifters will do hypertrophy phases (also called “massing” phases) as well as strength training phases. In this case, there’s definitely a benefit to using both rep ranges.

          However, now let’s imagine that your goal is to get stronger in the 6–12 rep range. In this case, best to just train in the 6–12 rep range. You’ll gain strength in that rep range more quickly by training it directly than if you were relying on carryover from strength training. Plus, you’ll build far more muscle. In this case, there’s no benefit from dipping into lower rep ranges. In fact, it will slow you down.

      • Sam on August 5, 2019 at 8:22 am

        I noticed in your studies blog, you suggested 2 mins rest was better for regaining strength and lifting heavier in each set. Makes sense!

        Maybe do a little article on the recovery times that are best for developing SIZE, if strength isn’t even an interest I mean???

        Couldn’t more total volume be lifted with lower rests, by simply adding in extra sets (in a given time frame I mean). Lets say you had 14 mins to do your DB Bench Press exercise.

        You could do any of the following:
        (Assuming it takes 30secs to do 10 reps)

        (25kg) 4×10 3 min recovery.
        (22.5kg) 4.5×10 with 2:30 rec. (the 0.5 could be 5 reps rest pause set)
        (20kg) 5.5×10 with 2:00 rec.
        (17.5kg) 7×10 with 1:30
        (15kg) 9×10 with 1:00

        Assuming you’d only have to drop 2.5kg in each arm for each rest reduction, the 9×10 would actually equate to the most volume in 14 minutes!

        But I wouldn’t know if volume is the most important factor for SIZE gains? It seems to be from what I’ve read though! Although any less than 1min rest would surely start to produce diminishing returns. Maybe a happy medium would actually be 1:30 or 2:00 after-all? But again, if strength isn’t a goal, why bother?
        But I’ve seen 3min rest as a suggestion for all compound lifts. why?!! You could have more volume by adding more sets on a lower weight in the same timeframe surely!?

        Could be a good article for you to write up on!

        • Shane Duquette on August 5, 2019 at 11:25 am

          Whether you’re training for muscle size or strength, you generally want to rest at least 2 minutes between sets. If you’re short on time, you could cut those rest periods short, yah, but there’d be a cost to that. Even better would be doing a modified type of superset/circuit.

          You’d do a set of bench press, rest a minute, do a set of rows, rest a minute, do another set of bench press, and so on. That way your pushing muscles are getting plenty of rest between your sets of bench press, your pulling muscles are getting plenty of rest between sets of rows, and you’re blasting through your sets more quickly overall. That’s going to allow you to gain more muscle size in less time 🙂

          If you have limited equipment, there’s still usually a way to manage. If you just have a barbell and a power cage, say, you can mix overhead presses and chin-ups together. That’s going to allow you to stimulate more muscle growth in less time with no downside (and you’ll see better improvements in your cardiovascular health).

  5. Killerdone on August 1, 2019 at 9:50 pm

    If I am a skinny guy the should I start hypertrophy training only or do both hypertrophy and strength training? My goal is to add some muscle to my skinny frame.

    • Shane Duquette on August 1, 2019 at 10:15 pm

      Hey man, if you’re a skinny guy who’s trying to bulk up, definitely go with hypertrophy training. It’s much better for gaining muscle size. You’ll bulk up far more quickly and leanly.

      There’s no need to mix in strength training while you’re bulking up, but so long as your hypertrophy program has an intelligent way of mixing it in, it should help. It’s fun, too.

      In our bulking program, after a couple months of pure hypertrophy training, we blend in some strength training. We still have the hypertrophy training there to bring in enough volume, though.

      Good luck bulking up! 🙂

  6. […] first problem is that strength training isn’t very good for gaining muscle size. It just doesn’t stimulate very much muscle growth. If you combine a strength training […]

  7. […] first problem is that strength training isn’t very good for gaining muscle size. It just doesn’t stimulate very much muscle […]

  8. Sebastián C. on August 2, 2019 at 8:21 pm

    Hey, Shane. Greetings from Ecuador! I’ve been reading your articles and they’re a great source of information for skinny guys, like me (height:167cm weight:51kg). Thank you very much for sharing your knowledge.
    Right now, I’m into StrongLifts 5×5. Despite a great improvement in strength and form during the first month, I wouldn’t be able to gain size.
    So, before moving into your program (hopefully, I’ll purchase it next week when my paycheck come), what should I do with my current training program and diet (I’m eating about 2800 calories a day, with a 60/20/20 approach)? I wanna do a good transition. Hope you can give me some advice.

    • Shane Duquette on August 2, 2019 at 9:16 pm

      Hey Sebastián, greetings from Mexico! Glad you’ve been digging the articles 🙂

      If you’re planning on starting the b2B program in a week or so, spending a week transitioning into something else in between probably isn’t the wisest approach. You could continue on with StrongLifts as is. Or you could modify it in a super simple way, adding reps to the bar instead of weight. So instead of going from 5x100kg up to 5x105kg on the deadlift, say, do 6–7x100kg. That’s going to bump your volume higher and make it a bit better for muscle growth.

      I wouldn’t worry too much about the transition, though. The skills you’ve developed with the big compound barbell lifts will carry over perfectly to a bulking program 🙂

      If you’re gunning to start now, have you heard of our Latte payment plan? It’s $5 a week. We don’t advertise it often, but here’s the link. Full guarantee still applies, so no risk.

  9. Ben on August 3, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    Should strength training still be incorporated first for beginners to build a foundation or strength for hypertrophy purpose later down the line?
    Essentially, should strength be built up via progressive overload which can lead to more muscle being built (because of more weight lifted per rep therefore increasing volume overall)?

    • Shane Duquette on August 3, 2019 at 7:45 pm

      That’s a good question.

      Progressive overload: Every good lifting program will be built around progressive overload. Popular strength training programs tend to be pretty good at that. Popular bodybuilding programs often aren’t. But a good hypertrophy program will have just as much progressive overload as a good strength training program.

      And yeah, you’ve got it exactly right. Always try to be adding weight (or reps) to your lifts. That’s the main way that you’re going to inch your volume up workout by workout. That’s also how you’re going to continue challenging your muscles and provoking adaptations. This is true whether you’re doing 3-rep or 12-rep sets.

      Building a foundation: I’m in the camp that believes that a foundation of strength starts with bulking up. This is an approach that’s even pretty common in powerlifting circles. Guys like Greg Nuckols, Chad Wesley Smith, and Mike Israetel all recommend that guys start by building up a “wide base” of muscle mass first, then start strength training afterwards.

      The idea is to start by building a big engine with lots of horsepower. The more muscle mass you have, the bigger your engine. Then, once you have that horsepower, you can learn how to use it. You can learn how to floor the gas pedal. That’s where strength training comes in.

      If you’re a skinny guy starting with strength training, you’ll be starting with small muscles. Even if you learn to use them with fearsome efficiency, you still won’t be able to lift much. Instead of spending those months trying to get stronger for your (small) size, you could spend them getting bigger and stronger.

      • Ben on August 8, 2019 at 9:34 pm

        Thank you so much for the reply.
        I’ve always been hesitant to start hypertrophy programs thinking I am not strong enough for my size (or have built a good strength foundation yet), so I just mainly do strength programs for a “foundation”. However, your article has opened my eyes and I can rest easy doing hypertrophy type of training and potentially periodize strength training later on!

        • Shane Duquette on August 12, 2019 at 1:25 pm

          Yessir. Building bigger muscles and then switching to strength training is a great approach 🙂

          Starting your workouts off with a heavy lift might help, too.

  10. Stuart on August 6, 2019 at 5:45 am


    Does this information change the current B2B program. Or do you believe the program has just the right amount of strength and hypertrophy?


    • Shane Duquette on August 6, 2019 at 10:04 am

      Hey Stuart, that’s a great question.

      All the research showing that strength training isn’t ideal for gaining muscle size started coming out around 2012, so we took that into account even with the very first version of our bulking program. We’ve updated our workouts a couple times since then, too. In this latest version, we think it has a pretty ideal balance.

      For anyone else reading, the b2B program is made up of 4 phases, each 5 weeks long. There’s also an optional Phase Zero for guys who are lifting weights for the first time. Phases 0–2 are entirely in the hypertrophy rep ranges. In Phases 3–4, though, the workouts begin with a strength training lift. For example, in the final phase, one of our workouts starts with 3-rep sets of deadlifts followed by hypertrophy lifts.

      To give some context about why we built our workouts this way, after conducting one of his famous studies, Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, wrote: “The study indicates that the best approach to building muscle is to perform a combination of heavy and moderately heavy loads. The ‘hypertrophy range’ is applicable from the standpoint that it allows the performance of a greater amount of volume without overtaxing the body’s resources.”

      There’s evidence that periodically varying the muscle-growth stimulus helps to prevent plateaus, which is why our program starts in higher rep ranges and then gets progressively heavier as you go through it.

      Edit: this is a good question. I’ve just added a little section to the article about the benefits of mixing some strength training into a hypertrophy program.

  11. Killerdone on August 8, 2019 at 10:29 pm

    Bony to beastly workout program can build functional muscles for athletes too? Like basketball, football , and etc?

    • Shane Duquette on August 12, 2019 at 1:30 pm

      Totally 🙂

      My business partner, Marco Walker-Ng, BHSc, CSCS, programs all of our workouts and teaches all of the lifts. He was a strength and conditioning coach for his university football team while getting his degree in Health Sciences, he studied under Eric Cressey (known for his work with MLB players), and since then he’s trained professional football players and Olympic rugby players. Helping athletes bulk up in order to improve their sports performance was his specialty before we founded Bony to Beastly together.

  12. Killerdone on August 9, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    What is the max volume (sets) i can do per week and per workout day?

    • Shane Duquette on August 12, 2019 at 1:53 pm

      You can probably do at least 20 sets per muscle group per week before you start to run into recovery issues, especially if you aren’t lifting to failure. Ideally you’d split those sets up between 2–3 workouts per week.

      Mind you, you don’t HAVE to do that many sets. You might get equally good results with fewer, especially if you’re still relatively new to lifting weights.

  13. Killerdone on August 9, 2019 at 4:05 pm

    How much volume per muscle group? per week? (You can make a new article about how much volume per muscle group it’ll be a good idea) you don’t have to but you can if you want.

    • Shane Duquette on August 12, 2019 at 1:57 pm

      Yeah, probably best to talk about volume in a whole separate post. Let’s keep this one about strength training and muscle size.

      • elly on August 20, 2019 at 5:09 am

        Would you be soon making an article about volume, then?

  14. […] However, strength training isn’t very good for gaining muscle size. Strength training is great for getting the neural gains that will make you stronger for your size, but if you’re trying to bulk up, that’s not the kind of adaptation that you’re fighting for. […]

  15. What's the Best Type of Lifting for Skinny Guys? on August 14, 2019 at 7:04 pm

    […] problem with strength training is that it’s not very good for stimulating muscle growth. That’s simply not what it’s for. It’s a style of training designed to teach us […]

  16. elly on August 20, 2019 at 5:14 am

    Hi Shane, how would you go about progressively increasing volume in a 3 day plan, so that the workouts don’t become too hard and too long?

  17. Hunter on August 22, 2019 at 6:59 am

    Hey Shane,

    I have been doing Starting Strength and not really any accessory exercises for a while now. While I was able to increase the weight steadily and get a lot stronger, I didn’t get the same results in muscle size as when I was following B2B. This is anecdotal, but I thought it might be helpful.

    It’s worth noting that I hadn’t been lifting for over a year and essentially started back from scratch. I will probably start back using the B2B templates this week teehee 🙂

  18. […] The next argument is that heavy strength training builds more muscle because it keeps the rep ranges low. That’s incorrect. There’s plenty of research showing that so long as get close enough to muscular failure, both heavy and light training will stimulate a similar amount of muscle growth. And strength training isn’t ideal for gaining muscle size, anyway. […]

  19. The "Big 5" Bulking Lifts - Outlift on August 28, 2019 at 2:33 pm

    […] rep ranges (strength training). Lifting in low rep ranges will yield some muscle growth, sure, but but it’s by no means ideal for building muscle. For most of us, it’s better to spend more of our time lifting in […]

  20. […] Strength and size are almost perfectly correlated. Until we’ve gained as much muscle mass as the average lifter, we shouldn’t expect to be able to lift as much as him. That might mean that we need to gain 20–40 pounds of muscle before we’re able to lift as much as they are, which can add an extra 6–18 months before we’re able to hit the strength targets of bench pressing 235, squatting 330, and deadlifting 405 pounds. (Keep in mind that although strength and size are virtually the same thing, that doesn’t mean that strength training is ideal for gaining muscle size.) […]

  21. […] power cages are designed for strength training, and strength training isn’t very good for gaining muscle mass. However, a good bulking routine will also be based around the big compound lifts, meaning that […]

  22. […] Glycogen levels aren’t an issue with strength training (study, study). Since the rep ranges are quite low, it doesn’t require much fuel. However, strength training isn’t very good for bulking. […]

  23. Bony to Beastly—Should Ectomorphs Do Cardio? on September 14, 2019 at 8:32 pm

    […] training,” that doesn’t mean that you need to do low-rep powerlifting-style workouts. That style of training isn’t as good for building muscle or improving your cardiovascular health. And besides, that’s not what health organizations […]

  24. […] some form of squat and deadlift, as they should. However, most of those programs either have a strength training bias or a pro-bodybuilding bias, and most of those workout programs will have you spending too much […]

  25. […] body, they’ll still want to choose a program that’s designed for muscle growth. Strength training can work decently well for building muscle, especially if you’re already starting out with a decent amount of muscle mass. Bodyweight […]

  26. […] conserve calories to stay chubby, insulated, and warm. Strength training tends to go quite […]

  27. […] lower-body emphasis is especially common with strength-training programs, as the main strength lifts are the low-bar squat, the deadlift, and the bench press. That’s […]

  28. […] are many different workout routines that skinny guys will often try as they bulk up, ranging from strength training to bodyweight workouts to bodybuilding. Now, as a general rule, we recommend that you do dedicated […]

  29. How to Bulk Up a Bony Upper Back | Bony to Beastly on September 22, 2019 at 3:23 pm

    […] like powerlifters, favouring the barbell back squat (often with a “low-bar” position). Strength training routines aren’t ideal for bulking up, though. Guys who are trying to bulk up should probably favour front-load squats, such as front […]

  30. […] a really strong powerlifter who walks with short choppy steps. Their body is adapted for just one plane, and they may have a […]

  31. […] improving your low-bar barbell back squat, your wide-grip bench press, and your deadlift. Those lifts aren’t ideal for building muscle, so why would you base your experience level on them? And why would you bother lifting […]

  32. […] I don’t have anything against StrongLifts, but it’s a strength training program. Strength training programs aren’t the same thing as hypertrophy […]

  33. The Complete Barbell Guide – Outlift on February 5, 2020 at 3:37 pm

    […] designed to stimulate muscle growth: weight training focused on the big compound lifts, and done in the mythical hypertrophy rep range (6–20 reps per […]

  34. Chin-Ups vs Curls for Biceps Growth – Outlift on February 7, 2020 at 3:53 pm

    […] be fair, strength training programs aren’t designed to help guys build bigger biceps, and so it makes sense that they […]

  35. […] Last month, Staniszewski et al published a study that evaluated muscle hypertrophy with different training protocols and strength curves. They had one group doing a strength protocol, the other doing a hypertrophy protocol. Not surprisingly, the group doing hypertrophy training gained quite a bit more muscle than the group doing strength training. […]

  36. Ryan on April 10, 2020 at 11:29 pm

    Overall decent article, but you make one glaring error. You call it a two week study, it’s not. it is two weeks of prep followed by 8 weeks of the real study. It’s conclusion may be an outlier, but it’s NOT a two week study.

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